Background: during school lessons participants can face challenging pedagogical problems such as when science and religion topics interact. Potential types of pedagogical problem and what participants can do in response are unclear. Research designs exploring pedagogical problem solving should investigate teachers’ thinking processes and include pupil interpretations.
Purpose: this theoretical paper builds on the Pedagogy Analysis Framework by integrating it with pedagogical problem-solving theory, illustrating the resultant extended Pedagogy Analysis Framework and Pedagogical Problem Typology using data from a video-based study of one science and one Religious Education (RE) lesson. The research design also builds on previous work by exploring primary school and RE pedagogy.
Sample: one class of thirty 7-year-old pupils, and another class of 10-year-olds, each with their class teacher and teaching assistants.
Design and method: four research methods were used (lesson video analysis, teacher verbal protocols, pupil group verbal protocols and individual teacher interviews). Data were video recorded (managed using NVivo). Six hours of video data were analysed using grounded theory methods by two educational researchers, the class teacher and two groups of pupils (three girls and three boys). The interpretivist theoretical perspective (symbolic interactionism) was underpinned by a social constructionist epistemology (hence the methodology is Straussian grounded theory). Appropriate criteria for evaluating the emergent grounded theory were used. Data were recorded in 2019.
Results: This paper presents an extended Pedagogy Analysis Framework and a Pedagogical Problem Typology both illustrated with examples.
Conclusion: the extended Pedagogy Analysis Framework and Pedagogical Problem Typology can help during pedagogy analysis to identify, understand and explain common and less common types of pedagogical problem. Novice-expert strategic dialogue can struggle for want of a shared vocabulary. This research design works with younger and older children.
Alexander, Robin. 2001. Culture and Pedagogy: International Comparisons in Primary Education. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Alexander, Robin. 2008. Essays on Pedagogy. Abingdon: Routledge.
BERA. 2018. Revised Ethical Guidelines for Education Research. London: British Educational Research Association.
Berlyne, D. E., Vinacke, W. E. and Sternberg, Robert J. "Thought." Encyclopedia Britannica., accessed 19th May 2021, https://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/thought/108663.
Birks, M. and J. Mills. 2011. Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide. London: Sage Publications.
Bishop, Alan J. 1976. "Decision-Making, the Intervening Variable." Educational Studies in Mathematics 7 (1/2): 41-47.
Bishop, Alan J. and Richard Charles Whitfield. 1972. Situations in Teaching. Maidenhead Berkshire: McGraw-Hill.
Black, Paul and Dylan Wiliam. 2018. "Classroom Assessment and Pedagogy." Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice 25 (6): 551-575.
Bloor, M. and F. Wood. 2006. Keywords in Qualitative Methods: A Vocabulary of Research Concepts. London: Sage.
Blumer, H. 1969. Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Borko, Hilda, Sarah A. Roberts, and Richard Shavelson. 2008. "Teachers’ Decision Making: From Alan J. Bishop to Today." In Critical Issues in Mathematics Education, 37-67. Boston, MA: Springer.
Bryant, T. and K. Charmaz. 2010. The SAGE Handbook of Grounded Theory. London: Sage Publications.
Carter, Nancy, Denise Bryant-Lukosius, Alba DiCenso, Jennifer Blythe, and Alan J. Neville. 2014. "The use of Triangulation in Qualitative Research." Oncology Nursing Forum 41 (5): 545-547.
Clarke, A. E. 2003. "Situational Analyses: Grounded Theory Mapping After the Postmodern Turn." Symbolic Interaction 26 (4): 553-576. doi:10.1525/si.2003.26.4.553.
Corbin, J. and A. Strauss. 2008. Basics of Qualitative Research. 3rd ed. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
Coyne, Richard. 2005. "Wicked Problems Revisited." Design Studies 26 (1): 5-17.
de Simone, Christina. 2008. "Problem‐Based Learning: A Framework for Prospective Teachers’ Pedagogical Problem Solving." Teacher Development 12 (3): 179-191.
DfE. 2012 "FOI Release - Maintained Faith Schools.", accessed 30/9/21, , https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/maintained-faith-schools/...
diSessa, A. 2006. "A History of Conceptual Change Research: Threads and Fault Lines." In the Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences, edited by K. Sawyer, 265-282. Cambridge MA: Cambridge University Press.
Gagne, Robert M. 1980. "Learnable Aspects of Problem Solving." Educational Psychologist 15 (2): 84-92.
Geertz, C. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.
Gick, Mary L. 1986. "Problem-Solving Strategies." Educational Psychologist 21 (1-2): 99-120.
Glaser, B. and A. Strauss. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine Publishing Company.
Hallam, Susan and Judith Ireson. 1999. "Pedagogy in the Secondary School." In Understanding Pedagogy and its Impact on Learning, edited by Peter Mortimore, 68-97. London: Paul Chapman.
Hardman, M., J. Riordan, and L. Hetherington. 2022. "A Material-Dialogic Perspective on Powerful Knowledge and Matter within a Science Classroom." In Powerful Knowledge and Epistemic Quality Across School Subjects, edited by B. Hudson, M. Stolare, N. Gericke and C. Olin-Scheller. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Heckhausen, Jutta and Heinz Heckhausen. 2018. "Motivation and Action: Introduction and Overview." In Motivation and Action, 1-14. Cham: Springer.
Hopfe, Lewis M. and Mark R. Woodward. 2009. Religions of the World. London: Pearson Education.
Jonassen, David H. 2000. "Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving." Educational Technology Research and Development 48 (4): 63-85.
Leach, Jenny and Bob Moon. 2008. The Power of Pedagogy. London: Sage.
Leighton, Jacqueline P. 2017. Using Think-Aloud Interviews and Cognitive Labs in Educational Research. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lewins, A. and C. Silver. 2007. Using Software in Qualitative Research: A Step-by-Step Guide. London: Sage Publications.
Lincoln, Y. and E. Guba. 1985. Naturalistic Inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Pretz, Jean E., Adam J. Naples, and Robert J. Sternberg. 2003. "Recognizing, Defining, and Representing Problems." The Psychology of Problem Solving 30 (3): 3-30.
Ramasesh, Ranga V. and Tyson R. Browning. 2014. "A Conceptual Framework for Tackling Knowable Unknown Unknowns in Project Management." Journal of Operations Management 32 (4): 190-204.
Reed, Stephen K. 2016. "The Structure of Ill-Structured (and Well-Structured) Problems Revisited." Educational Psychology Review 28 (4): 691-716.
Riordan, J. P. 2020. "A Method and Framework for Video-Based Pedagogy Analysis." Research in Science & Technological Education. doi:10.1080/02635143.2020.1776243.
Riordan, J. P., M. Hardman, and D. Cumbers. 2021. "Pedagogy Analysis Framework: A Video-Based Tool for Combining Teacher, Pupil and Researcher Perspectives." Research in Science & Technological Education. doi:10.1080/02635143.2021.1972960.
Rittel, Horst W. and Melvin M. Webber. 1973. "2.3 Planning Problems are Wicked." Polity 4 (155): e169.
Santagata, Rossella and Jody Guarino. 2011. "Using Video to Teach Future Teachers to Learn from Teaching." Zdm 43 (1): 133-145.
Shavelson, Richard J. and Paula Stern. 1981. "Research on Teachers’ Pedagogical Thoughts, Judgments, Decisions, and Behavior." Review of Educational Research 51 (4): 455-498.
Simon, Herbert A. 1973. "The Structure of Ill Structured Problems." Artificial Intelligence 4 (3-4): 181-201.
Taylor, L. and J. P. Dionne. 2000. "Accessing Problem-Solving Strategy Knowledge: The Complementary use of Concurrent Verbal Protocols and Retrospective Debriefing." Journal of Educational Psychology 92 (3): 413-425. doi:10.1037//0022-06220.127.116.113.
Watkins, C. and P. Mortimore. 1999. "Pedagogy: What do we Know." In Understanding Pedagogy and its Impact on Learning, edited by P. Mortimore, 1-19. London: Paul Chapman.
Weber, M. 1994. Sociological Writings. W. Heydebrand ed. London: Continuum.
Weitzman, Eben A. and Patricia Flynn Weitzman. 2014. "The PSDM Model: Integrating Problem Solving and Decision Making in Conﬂict Resolution." In the Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice, 203-229. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Wellington, Jerry. 2012. "Searching for ‘doctorateness’." Studies in Higher Education 38 (10): 1490-1503.
Whaley, B. 1982. "Toward a General Theory of Deception." In Military Deception and Strategic Surprise, edited by J. Gooch and A. Perlmutter, 178-192. London: Frank Cass.