Powder-based laser hybrid additive manufacturing of metals: A review

Journal article

Hassanin, H. 2021. Powder-based laser hybrid additive manufacturing of metals: A review. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology.
AuthorsHassanin, H.

Recent advances in additive manufacturing (AM) have attracted a significant industrial interest. Initially, AM was mainly associated with the fabrication of prototypes, but the AM advances together with the broadening the range of available materials, especially for producing metallic parts, have broaden the application areas and now the technology can be used for manufacturing functional parts, too. Especially, the AM technologies enable the creation of complex and topologically optimised geometries with internal cavities that were impossible to produce with traditional manufacturing processes. However, the tight geometrical tolerances along with the strict surface integrity requirements in aerospace, biomedical and automotive industries are not achievable in most cases with standalone AM technologies. Therefore, AM parts need extensive post-processing to ensure that their surface and dimensional requirements together with their respective mechanical properties are met. In this context, it is not surprising that the integration of AM with post-processing technologies into single and multi set-up processing solutions, commonly referred to as hybrid AM, has emerged as a very attractive proposition for industry while attracting a significant R&D interest. This paper reviews the current research and technology advances associated with the hybrid AM solutions. The special focus is on hybrid AM solutions that combine the capabilities of laser-based AM for processing powders with the necessary post-process technologies for producing metal parts with required accuracy, surface integrity and material properties. Commercially available hybrid AM system that integrate laser-based AM with post-processing technologies are also reviewed together with their key application areas. Finally, the main challenges and open issues in broadening the industrial use of hybrid AM solutions are discussed.

KeywordsHybrid manufacturing; Additive manufacturing; Laser; Powder; Post-processing
JournalThe International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
PublisherSpringer Nature
Publication process dates
Accepted01 Mar 2021
Deposited08 Mar 2021
Accepted author manuscript
File Access Level
Output statusIn press

[1] Essa K, Hassanin H, Attallah MM, Adkins NJ, Musker AJ, Roberts GT, et al. Development and testing of an additively manufactured monolithic catalyst bed for HTP thruster applications. Appl Catal A Gen 2017;542:125–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2017.05.019.
[2] A. Sabouri, A.K. Yetisen, R. Sadigzade, H. Hassanin, K. Essa HB. Three-Dimensional Microstructured Lattices for Oil Sensing. Energy & Fuels 2017;31, 3:2524–9.
[3] Li S, Hassanin H, Attallah MM, Adkins NJE, Essa K. The development of TiNi-based negative Poisson’s ratio structure using selective laser melting. Acta Mater 2016;105:75–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2015.12.017.
[4] Hassanin H, Alkendi Y, Elsayed M, Essa K, Zweiri Y. Controlling the Properties of Additively Manufactured Cellular Structures Using Machine Learning Approaches. Adv Eng Mater 2020;22:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.201901338.
[5] Hassanin H, Finet L, Cox SC, Jamshidi P, Grover LM, Shepherd DET, et al. Tailoring selective laser melting process for titanium drug-delivering implants with releasing micro-channels. Addit Manuf 2018;20:144–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.01.005.
[6] Springer n.d. https://www.springer.com/gp (accessed December 1, 2020).
[7] Karunakaran KP, Suryakumar S, Pushpa V, Akula S. Low cost integration of additive and subtractive processes for hybrid layered manufacturing. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 2010;26:490–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2010.03.008.
[8] Kerbrat O, Mognol P, Hascoët JY. A new DFM approach to combine machining and additive manufacturing. Comput Ind 2011;62:684–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2011.04.003.
[9] 3dhubs. Producing Metal Parts - CNC vs. Additive Manufacturing n.d.
[10] Manogharan G, Wysk R, Harrysson O, Aman R. AIMS - A Metal Additive-hybrid Manufacturing System: System Architecture and Attributes. Procedia Manuf 2015;1:273–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2015.09.021.
[11] Tofail SAM, Koumoulos EP, Bandyopadhyay A, Bose S, O’Donoghue L, Charitidis C. Additive manufacturing: scientific and technological challenges, market uptake and opportunities. Mater Today 2018;21:22–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mattod.2017.07.001.
[12] About Additive Manufacturing -Directed Energy Deposition n.d. https://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/amrg/about/the7categoriesofadditive... (accessed March 13, 2020).
[13] Zhang Y, Jarosinski W, Jung YG, Zhang J. Additive manufacturing processes and equipment. Elsevier Inc.; 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812155-9.00002-5.
[14] Yin S, Cavaliere P, Aldwell B, Jenkins R, Liao H, Li W, et al. Cold spray additive manufacturing and repair: Fundamentals and applications. Addit Manuf 2018;21:628–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.04.017.
[15] Bray M, Cockburn A, O’Neill W. The Laser-assisted Cold Spray process and deposit characterisation. Surf Coatings Technol 2009;203:2851–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2009.02.135.
[16] Guo P, Zou B, Huang C, Gao H. Study on microstructure, mechanical properties and machinability of efficiently additive manufactured AISI 316L stainless steel by high-power direct laser deposition. J Mater Process Technol 2017;240:12–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.09.005.
[17] Milewski JO. Corrosion News. vol. 69. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1002/maco.201870124.
[18] Azarniya A, Colera XG, Mirzaali MJ, Sovizi S, Bartolomeu F, St Weglowski M k., et al. Additive manufacturing of Ti–6Al–4V parts through laser metal deposition (LMD): Process, microstructure, and mechanical properties. J Alloys Compd 2019;804:163–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.04.255.
[19] W.E. King, A.T. Anderson, R.M. Ferencz, N.E. Hodge, C. Kamath, S.A. Khairallah AMR. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges. Appl Phys Rev 2 2015:41304.
[20] Bidare P, Bitharas I, Ward RM, Attallah MM, Moore AJ. Fluid and particle dynamics in laser powder bed fusion. Acta Mater 2018;142:107–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2017.09.051.
[21] Das S. Physical Aspects of Process Control in Selective Laser Sintering of Metals. Adv Eng Mater 2003;5:701–11. https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.200310099.
[22] Talib Mohammed M. Mechanical properties of SLM-Titanium materials for biomedical applications: A review. Mater Today Proc 2018;5:17906–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2018.06.119.
[23] Igor S. Aerospace applications of the SLM process of functional and functional graded metal matrix composites based on NiCr superalloys. vol. c. Elsevier Inc.; 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-814062-8.00014-5.
[24] Gu DD, Meiners W, Wissenbach K, Poprawe, R.Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: Materials processes and mechanisms. Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: Materials, processes and mechanisms. Int Mater Rev 2012;57:133–64. https://doi.org/10.1179/1743280411Y.0000000014.
[25] Read N, Wang W, Essa K, Attallah MM. Selective laser melting of AlSi10Mg alloy: Process optimisation and mechanical properties development. Mater Des 2015;65:417–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.09.044.
[26] Kamath C, El-Dasher B, Gallegos GF, King WE, Sisto A. Density of additively-manufactured, 316L SS parts using laser powder-bed fusion at powers up to 400 W. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2014;74:65–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-014-5954-9.
[27] Dadbakhsh S, Hao L. Effect of layer thickness in selective laser melting on microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 powder consolidated parts. Sci World J 2014;2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/106129.
[28] Ferrar B, Mullen L, Jones E, Stamp R, Sutcliffe CJ. Gas flow effects on selective laser melting (SLM) manufacturing performance. J Mater Process Technol 2012;212:355–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2011.09.020.
[29] Louvis E, Fox P, Sutcliffe CJ. Selective laser melting of aluminium components. J Mater Process Technol 2011;211:275–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2010.09.019.
[30] Moda O. Renishaw AM delivers fast parts at Ferrari F1. Renishaw n.d.
[31] Herzog D, Bartsch K, Bossen B. Productivity Optimization of Laser Powder Bed Fusion by Hot Isostatic Pressing. Addit Manuf 2020;36:101494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101494.
[32] SHI G, GUAN C, QUAN D, WU D, TANG L, GAO T. An aerospace bracket designed by thermo-elastic topology optimization and manufactured by additive manufacturing. Chinese J Aeronaut 2020;33:1252–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cja.2019.09.006.
[33] López-Castro JD, Marchal A, González L, Botana J. Topological optimization and manufacturing by Direct Metal Laser Sintering of an aeronautical part in 15-5PH stainless steel. Procedia Manuf 2017;13:818–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2017.09.121.
[34] Li R, Shi Y, Wang Z, Wang L, Liu J, Jiang W. Densification behavior of gas and water atomized 316L stainless steel powder during selective laser melting. Appl Surf Sci 2010;256:4350–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.02.030.
[35] RenAM 500Q multi-laser AM system. Renishaw PLC 2017. https://resources.renishaw.com/en/details/data-sheet-renam-500q--990... (accessed March 17, 2020).
[36] MetalFAB1. Addit Ind 2015. https://www.additiveindustries.com/systems/metalfab1 (accessed March 17, 2020).
[37] Bidare P, Bitharas I, Ward RM, Attallah MM, Moore AJ. Laser powder bed fusion at sub-atmospheric pressures. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 2018;130–131:65–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2018.03.007.
[38] Bidare P, Maier RRJ, Beck RJ, Shephard JD, Moore AJ. An open-architecture metal powder bed fusion system for in-situ process measurements. Addit Manuf 2017;16:177–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2017.06.007.
[39] Bidare P, Bitharas I, Ward RM, Attallah MM, Moore AJ. Laser powder bed fusion in high-pressure atmospheres. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2018;99:543–55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-2495-7.
[40] Concept Laser. GE Addit 2015. https://www.ge.com/additive/de/who-we-are/concept-laser (accessed April 6, 2020).
[41] EOSTATE Monitoring and Quality Assurance - Real-time monitoring for industrial 3D printing. Eos (Washington DC) 2017. https://www.eos.info/software/monitoring-software (accessed April 6, 2020).
[42] Sercombe TB, Xu X, Challis VJ, Green R, Yue S, Zhang Z, et al. Failure modes in high strength and stiffness to weight scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting. Mater Des 2015;67:501–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.10.063.
[43] Beretta S, Romano S. A comparison of fatigue strength sensitivity to defects for materials manufactured by AM or traditional processes. Int J Fatigue 2017;94:178–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2016.06.020.
[44] P. Graff, B. Ståhlbom, E. Nordenberg, A. Graichen, P. Johansson HK. Evaluating Measuring Techniques for Occupational Exposure during Additive Manufacturing of Metals: A Pilot Study. J Ind Ecol 2016;0:1–10.
[45] Kruth JP, Froyen L, Van Vaerenbergh J, Mercelis P, Rombouts M, Lauwers B. Selective laser melting of iron-based powder. J Mater Process Technol 2004;149:616–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2003.11.051.
[46] Yadroitsev I, Bertrand P, Smurov I. Parametric analysis of the selective laser melting process. Appl Surf Sci 2007;253:8064–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2007.02.088.
[47] K.A. Mumtaz, N. Hopkinson PE. High Density Selective Laser Melting of Waspaloy 2006;195:220–32.
[48] Spierings AB, Herres N, Levy G. Influence of the particle size distribution on surface quality and mechanical properties in AM steel parts. Rapid Prototyp J 2011;17:195–202. https://doi.org/10.1108/13552541111124770.
[49] Liu B, Wildman R, Tuck C, Ashcroft I, Hague R. Investigation the effect of particle size distribution on processing parameters optimisation in selective laser melting process. 22nd Annu Int Solid Free Fabr Symp - An Addit Manuf Conf SFF 2011 2011:227–38.
[50] Yadroitsev I, Thivillon L, Bertrand P, Smurov I. Strategy of manufacturing components with designed internal structure by selective laser melting of metallic powder. Appl Surf Sci 2007;254:980–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2007.08.046.
[51] M. Simonelli, C. Tuck, N.T. Aboulkhair, I. Maskery, I. Ashcroft, R.D. Wildman RH. A Study on the Laser Spatter and the Oxidation Reactions During Selective Laser Melting of 316L Stainless Steel, Al-Si10-Mg, and Ti-6Al-4V. Met Mater Trans A 2015;46:3842–3851.
[52] Kempen K, Thijs L, Vrancken B, Buls S, Van Humbeeck J, Kruth JP. Producing crack-free, high density M2 HSS parts by Selective Laser Melting: Pre-heating the baseplate. 24th Int SFF Symp - An Addit Manuf Conf SFF 2013 2013:131–9.
[53] Morozova L V., Raevskikh AN. Defects in Metal Components Produced by Selective Laser Melting. Russ Eng Res 2020;40:38–43. https://doi.org/10.3103/S1068798X20010153.
[54] Thompson SM, Bian L, Shamsaei N, Yadollahi A. An overview of Direct Laser Deposition for additive manufacturing; Part I: Transport phenomena, modeling and diagnostics. Addit Manuf 2015;8:36–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2015.07.001.
[55] Löffler K. Developments in disk laser welding. Handb Laser Weld Technol 2013:73–102. https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857098771.1.73.
[56] Bax B, Rajput R, Kellet R, Reisacher M. Systematic evaluation of process parameter maps for laser cladding and directed energy deposition. Addit Manuf 2018;21:487–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.04.002.
[57] Terrassa KL, Smith TR, Jiang S, Sugar JD, Schoenung JM. Improving build quality in Directed Energy Deposition by cross-hatching. Mater Sci Eng A 2019;765:138269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2019.138269.
[58] Zhu G, Shi S, Fu G, Shi J, Yang S, Meng W, et al. The influence of the substrate-inclined angle on the section size of laser cladding layers based on robot with the inside-beam powder feeding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2017;88:2163–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-8950-4.
[59] Kelbassa MSJ, Gasser A, Pirch N. WIRE VS . POWDER IN LMD. Fraunhofer ILT 2018.
[60] Petrat T, Graf B, Gumenyuk A, Rethmeier M. Laser metal deposition as repair technology for a gas turbine burner made of inconel 718. Phys Procedia 2016;83:761–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2016.08.078.
[61] Ünal-Saewe T, Gahn L, Kittel J, Gasser A, Schleifenbaum JH. Process development for tip repair of complex shaped turbine blades with IN718. Procedia Manuf 2020;47:1050–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2020.04.114.
[62] Foster J, Cullen C, Fitzpatrick S, Payne G, Hall L, Marashi J. Remanufacture of hot forging tools and dies using laser metal deposition with powder and a hard-facing alloy Stellite 21®. J Remanufacturing 2019;9:189–203. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13243-018-0063-9.
[63] Laser metal deposition (LMD). Trumpf n.d. https://www.trumpf.com/en_GB/applications/additive-manufacturing/las... (accessed March 17, 2020).
[64] Jinoop AN, Paul CP, Mishra SK, Bindra KS. Laser Additive Manufacturing using directed energy deposition of Inconel-718 wall structures with tailored characteristics. Vacuum 2019;166:270–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vacuum.2019.05.027.
[65] Segerstark A, Andersson J, Svensson LE, Ojo O. Effect of Process Parameters on the Crack Formation in Laser Metal Powder Deposition of Alloy 718. Metall Mater Trans A Phys Metall Mater Sci 2018;49:5042–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-018-4767-0.
[66] Langebeck A, Bohlen A, Freisse H, Vollertsen F. Additive manufacturing with the lightweight material aluminium alloy EN AW-7075. Weld World 2019:429–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40194-019-00831-z.
[67] Ngo TD, Kashani A, Imbalzano G, Nguyen KTQ, Hui D. Additive manufacturing (3D printing): A review of materials, methods, applications and challenges. Compos Part B Eng 2018;143:172–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.02.012.
[68] Huang Y, Leu MC, Mazumder J, Donmez A. Additive manufacturing: Current state, future potential, gaps and needs, and recommendations. J Manuf Sci Eng Trans ASME 2015;137:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4028725.
[69] Khorasani AM, Gibson I, Goldberg M, Littlefair G. Production of Ti-6Al-4V acetabular shell using selective laser melting: Possible limitations in fabrication. Rapid Prototyp J 2017;23:110–21. https://doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-11-2015-0159.
[70] Konečná R, Nicoletto G. On the link between as-built surface quality and fatigue behavior of additively manufactured Inconel 718. Procedia Struct Integr 2019;23:384–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prostr.2020.01.117.
[71] Pal S, Lojen G, Hudak R, Rajtukova V, Brajlih T, Kokol V, et al. As-fabricated surface morphologies of Ti-6Al-4V samples fabricated by different laser processing parameters in selective laser melting. Addit Manuf 2020;33:101147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2020.101147.
[72] DePond PJ, Guss G, Ly S, Calta NP, Deane D, Khairallah S, et al. In situ measurements of layer roughness during laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing using low coherence scanning interferometry. Mater Des 2018;154:347–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2018.05.050.
[73] Ghimire S, Flury M, Scheenstra EJ, Miles CA. Benchmarking Build Simulation Software for Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Metals. Addit Manuf 2019:135577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135577.
[74] Wu Z. Exploring the fabrication limits of thin-wall structures in a laser powder bed fusion process 2020:191–207.
[75] Frazier WE. Metal additive manufacturing: A review. J Mater Eng Perform 2014;23:1917–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-014-0958-z.
[76] Selcuk C. Laser metal deposition for powder metallurgy parts. Powder Metall 2011;54:94–9. https://doi.org/10.1179/174329011X12977874589924.
[77] Liou F, Slattery K, Kinsella M, Newkirk J, Chou HN, Landers R. Applications of a hybrid manufacturing process for fabrication of metallic structures. Rapid Prototyp J 2007;13:236–44. https://doi.org/10.1108/13552540710776188.
[78] Schmelzle J, Kline E V., Dickman CJ, Reutzel EW, Jones G, Simpson TW. (Re)Designing for Part Consolidation: Understanding the Challenges of Metal Additive Manufacturing. J Mech Des Trans ASME 2015;137:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4031156.
[79] Du W, Bai Q, Zhang B. A Novel Method for Additive/Subtractive Hybrid Manufacturing of Metallic Parts. Procedia Manuf 2016;5:1018–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2016.08.067.
[80] Arregui L, Garmendia I, Pujana J, Soriano C. Study of the Geometrical Limitations Associated to the Metallic Part Manufacturing by the LMD Process. Procedia CIRP 2018;68:363–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2017.12.096.
[81] Lorenz KA, Jones JB, Wimpenny DI, Jackson MR. A Review of Hybrid Manufacturing. Igarss 2014 2014:1–5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2.
[82] Bhaduri D, Penchev P, Essa K, Dimov S, Carter LN, Pruncu CI, et al. Evaluation of surface/interface quality, microstructure and mechanical properties of hybrid additive-subtractive aluminium parts. CIRP Ann 2019;68:237–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2019.04.116.
[83] Spierings AB, Levy G, Labhart L, Wegener K. Production of functional parts using SLM - Opportunities and limitations. Innov Dev Virtual Phys Prototyp - Proc 5th Int Conf Adv Res Rapid Prototyp 2012:785–90. https://doi.org/10.1201/b11341-126.
[84] Gao W, Zhang Y, Ramanujan D, Ramani K, Chen Y, Williams CB, et al. The status, challenges, and future of additive manufacturing in engineering. CAD Comput Aided Des 2015;69:65–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cad.2015.04.001.
[85] Ahuja B, Karg M, Schmidt M. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities. Laser 3D Manuf II 2015;9353:935304. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2082521.
[86] Jacob G, Brown C, Donmez A, Watson S. Effects of powder recycling on stainless steel powder and built material properties in metal powder bed fusion processes. NIST Adv Manuf Ser 2017;Series 100:59.
[87] O’Leary R, Setchi R, Prickett P, Hankins G, Jones N. An Investigation into the Recycling of Ti-6Al-4V Powder Used Within SLM to Improve Sustainability. SDM’2015 2nd Int Conf Sustain Des Manuf , 2015:14–7.
[88] Asgari H, Baxter C, Hosseinkhani K, Mohammadi M. On microstructure and mechanical properties of additively manufactured AlSi10Mg_200C using recycled powder. Mater Sci Eng A 2017;707:148–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2017.09.041.
[89] Ardila LC, Garciandia F, González-Díaz JB, Álvarez P, Echeverria A, Petite MM, et al. Effect of IN718 recycled powder reuse on properties of parts manufactured by means of Selective Laser Melting. Phys Procedia 2014;56:99–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2014.08.152.
[90] Pauzon C, Hryha E, Forêt P, Nyborg L. Effect of argon and nitrogen atmospheres on the properties of stainless steel 316 L parts produced by laser-powder bed fusion. Mater Des 2019;179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2019.107873.
[91] Renderos M, Girot F, Lamikiz A, Torregaray A, Saintier N. Ni based powder reconditioning and reuse for LMD process. Phys Procedia 2016;83:769–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2016.08.079.
[92] Thompson MK, Moroni G, Vaneker T, Fadel G, Campbell RI, Gibson I, et al. Design for Additive Manufacturing: Trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints. CIRP Ann - Manuf Technol 2016;65:737–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2016.05.004.
[93] Hassanin H, Modica F, El-Sayed MA, Liu J, Essa K. Manufacturing of Ti–6Al–4V Micro-Implantable Parts Using Hybrid Selective Laser Melting and Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining. Adv Eng Mater 2016;18:1544–9. https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.201600172.
[94] Essa K, Modica F, Imbaby M, El-Sayed MA, ElShaer A, Jiang K, et al. Manufacturing of metallic micro-components using hybrid soft lithography and micro-electrical discharge machining. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2017;91:445–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-9655-4.
[95] Bhaduri, Debajyoti, Penchev, P., Carter, L.N., Essa, K.E.A., Dimov, S., Adkins, N.J.E., Bajolet, J., Tommasi, A., Pullini D, Jurdeczka U. Development and evaluation of a hybrid additive-subtractive process chain. CIRP Winter Meet. 2018, 2018.
[96] Popovich VA, Borisov E V., Popovich AA, Sufiiarov VS, Masaylo D V., Alzina L. Impact of heat treatment on mechanical behaviour of Inconel 718 processed with tailored microstructure by selective laser melting. Mater Des 2017;131:12–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.05.065.
[97] Hassanin H, Essa K, Qiu C, Abdelhafeez AM, Adkins NJE, Attallah MM. Net-shape manufacturing using hybrid selective laser melting/hot isostatic pressing. Rapid Prototyp J 2017;23:720–6. https://doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-02-2016-0019.
[98] Kalentics N, Boillat E, Peyre P, Gorny C, Kenel C, Leinenbach C, et al. 3D Laser Shock Peening – A new method for the 3D control of residual stresses in Selective Laser Melting. Mater Des 2017;130:350–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.05.083.
[99] Sun R, Li L, Zhu Y, Guo W, Peng P, Cong B, et al. Microstructure, residual stress and tensile properties control of wire-arc additive manufactured 2319 aluminum alloy with laser shock peening. J Alloys Compd 2018;747:255–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.02.353.
[100] Hackel L, Rankin JR, Rubenchik A, King WE, Matthews M. Laser peening: A tool for additive manufacturing post-processing. Addit Manuf 2018;24:67–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.09.013.
[101] Luo S, He W, Chen K, Nie X, Zhou L, Li Y. Regain the fatigue strength of laser additive manufactured Ti alloy via laser shock peening. J Alloys Compd 2018;750:626–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.04.029.
[102] Guo W, Sun R, Song B, Zhu Y, Li F, Che Z, et al. Laser shock peening of laser additive manufactured Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. Surf Coatings Technol 2018;349:503–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.06.020.
[103] Madireddy G, Li C, Liu J, Sealy MP. Modeling thermal and mechanical cancellation of residual stress from hybrid additive manufacturing by laser peening. Nami Jishu Yu Jingmi Gongcheng/Nanotechnology Precis Eng 2019;2:49–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.npe.2019.07.001.
[104] Qiu C, Adkins NJE, Hassanin H, Attallah MM, Essa K. In-situ shelling via selective laser melting: Modelling and microstructural characterisation. Mater Des 2015;87:845–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2015.08.091.
[105] Zhu Z, Dhokia V, Nassehi A, Newman ST. Investigation of part distortions as a result of hybrid manufacturing. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 2016;37:23–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2015.06.001.
[106] Airbus. Airbus Technical Magazine. Flight Airworth Support Technol 2015:34.
[107] Surface Roughness - Digital Alloys. Digit Alloy n.d. https://www.digitalalloys.com/blog/surface-roughness/ (accessed May 21, 2020).
[108] Calignano F. Investigation of the accuracy and roughness in the laser powder bed fusion process. Virtual Phys Prototyp 2018;13:97–104. https://doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2018.1426368.
[109] Rombouts M, Maes G, Hendrix W, Delarbre E, Motmans F. Surface finish after laser metal deposition. Phys Procedia 2013;41:810–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2013.03.152.
[110] Rotella G, Imbrogno S, Candamano S, Umbrello D. Surface integrity of machined additively manufactured Ti alloys. J Mater Process Technol 2018;259:180–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.04.030.
[111] Dadbakhsh S, Hao L, Kong CY. Surface finish improvement of LMD samples using laser polishing. Virtual Phys Prototyp 2010;5:215–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2010.528180.
[112] Tucho WM, Cuvillier P, Sjolyst-Kverneland A, Hansen V. Microstructure and hardness studies of Inconel 718 manufactured by selective laser melting before and after solution heat treatment. Mater Sci Eng A 2017;689:220–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2017.02.062.
[113] Deng D, Peng RL, Brodin H, Moverare J. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 718 produced by selective laser melting: Sample orientation dependence and effects of post heat treatments. Mater Sci Eng A 2018;713:294–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2017.12.043.
[114] AlMangour B, Yang JM. Improving the surface quality and mechanical properties by shot-peening of 17-4 stainless steel fabricated by additive manufacturing. Mater Des 2016;110:914–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.08.037.
[115] Uzan NE, Ramati S, Shneck R, Frage N, Yeheskel O. On the effect of shot-peening on fatigue resistance of AlSi10Mg specimens fabricated by additive manufacturing using selective laser melting (AM-SLM). Addit Manuf 2018;21:458–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.03.030.
[116] Maamoun A, Elbestawi M, Veldhuis S. Influence of Shot Peening on AlSi10Mg Parts Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing. J Manuf Mater Process 2018;2:40. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030040.
[117] Damon J, Dietrich S, Vollert F, Gibmeier J, Schulze V. Process dependent porosity and the influence of shot peening on porosity morphology regarding selective laser melted AlSi10Mg parts. Addit Manuf 2018;20:77–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2018.01.001.
[118] Ma CP, Guan YC, Zhou W. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys. Opt Lasers Eng 2017;93:171–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2017.02.005.
[119] Yung KC, Xiao TY, Choy HS, Wang WJ, Cai ZX. Laser polishing of additive manufactured CoCr alloy components with complex surface geometry. J Mater Process Technol 2018;262:53–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.06.019.
[120] Zhihao F, Libin L, Longfei C, Yingchun G. Laser Polishing of Additive Manufactured Superalloy. Procedia CIRP 2018;71:150–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2018.05.088.
[121] Dos Santos Solheid J, Seifert HJ, Pfleging W. Laser surface modification and polishing of additive manufactured metallic parts. Procedia CIRP 2018;74:280–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2018.08.111.
[122] Penchev P, Bhaduri D, Carter L, Mehmeti A, Essa K, Dimov S, et al. System-level integration tools for laser-based powder bed fusion enabled process chains. J Manuf Syst 2019;50:87–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmsy.2018.12.003.
[123] Boivie K, Dolinsek S, Homar D. Hybrid Manufacturing ; Integration of Additive Technologies for Competitive Production of Complex Tools and Products. 15th Int Res Conf ”Trends Dev Mach Assoc Technol 2011.
[124] Solution Heat Treatment - Merriam Webster Dictionary n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/solution heat treatment (accessed February 7, 2020).
[125] Huang S, Yeong WY. Laser re-scanning strategy in selective laser melting for part quality enhancement: A review. Proc Int Conf Prog Addit Manuf 2018;2018–May:413–9. https://doi.org/10.25341/D4GP4J.
[126] Lamikiz A, Sánchez JA, López de Lacalle LN, Arana JL. Laser polishing of parts built up by selective laser sintering. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 2007;47:2040–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2007.01.013.
[127] Yasa E, Deckers J, Kruth JP. The investigation of the influence of laser re-melting on density, surface quality and microstructure of selective laser melting parts. Rapid Prototyp J 2011;17:312–27. https://doi.org/10.1108/13552541111156450.
[128] Yasa E, Kruth JP. Microstructural investigation of selective laser melting 316L stainless steel parts exposed to laser re-melting. Procedia Eng 2011;19:389–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.11.130.
[129] Yang X, Liu J, Cui X, Jin G, Liu Z, Chen Y, et al. Effect of remelting on microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe-Co-based alloys produced by laser additive manufacturing. J Phys Chem Solids 2019;130:210–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpcs.2019.03.001.
[130] Wei K, Lv M, Zeng X, Xiao Z, Huang G, Liu M, et al. Effect of laser remelting on deposition quality, residual stress, microstructure, and mechanical property of selective laser melting processed Ti-5Al-2.5Sn alloy. Mater Charact 2019;150:67–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2019.02.010.
[131] Yu W, Sing SL, Chua CK, Tian X. Influence of re-melting on surface roughness and porosity of AlSi10Mg parts fabricated by selective laser melting. J Alloys Compd 2019;792:574–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.04.017.
[132] Bruzzo F, Catalano G, Demir AG, Previtali B. In-process laser re-melting of thin walled parts to improve surface quality after laser metal deposition. Key Eng Mater 2019;813 KEM:191–6. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.813.191.
[133] Witkin D, Helvajian H, Steffeney L, Hansen W. Laser post-processing of Inconel 625 made by selective laser melting. Laser 3D Manuf III 2016;9738:97380W. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2213745.
[134] Wang Y, Shi J. Microstructure and Properties of Inconel 718 Fabricated by Directed Energy Deposition with In-Situ Ultrasonic Impact Peening. Metall Mater Trans B Process Metall Mater Process Sci 2019;50:2815–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-019-01672-3.
[135] Jones JB. The synergies of hybridizing CNC and additive manufacturing. Tech Pap - Soc Manuf Eng 2014;TP14PUB72:1–8.
[136] Yamazaki T. Development of A Hybrid Multi-tasking Machine Tool: Integration of Additive Manufacturing Technology with CNC Machining. Procedia CIRP 2016;42:81–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2016.02.193.
[137] Penchev P, Bhaduri D, Dimov S, Soo SL. Novel Manufacturing Platform for Scale up Production of Miniaturized Parts. IWMF2014, 9th Int Work MICROFACTORIES 2014:1–8.
[138] Mehmeti A., Penchev P., Lynch D., Vincent D., Maillol N., Maurath J., Bajolet J., Wimpenny D., Essa K. DS. Mechanical Behaviour and Interface Evaluation of Hybrid MIM/PBF Stainless Steel Components [Submitted]. Rapid Prototyp 2020.
[139] Data RUSA, Traverso CG, Schroeder AD, Polat BE, Magnus C, Blankschtein D, et al. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING IN STU STRESS RELIEF - Patent Application Publication ( 10 ) Pub . No .: US 2013 / 0165772 A1, 2013.
[140] Data RUSA, Traverso CG, Schroeder AD, Polat BE, Magnus C, Blankschtein D, et al. FUNCTIONALLY GRADED ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING WITH IN SITU HEAT TREATMENT - Patent Application Publication ( 10 ) Pub . No .: US 2013 / 0165772 A1, 2013.
[141] Liu B, Li BQ, Li Z. Selective laser remelting of an additive layer manufacturing process on AlSi10Mg. Results Phys 2019;12:982–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2018.12.018.
[142] Roehling JD, Smith WL, Roehling TT, Vrancken B, Guss GM, McKeown JT, et al. Reducing residual stress by selective large-area diode surface heating during laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing. Addit Manuf 2019;28:228–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2019.05.009.
[143] Kahlin M, Ansell H, Basu D, Kerwin A, Newton L, Smith B, et al. Improved fatigue strength of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V by surface post processing. Int J Fatigue 2020;134:105497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2020.105497.
[144] 10 Top Hybrid Manufacturing Companies. 3D Print MEdia Netw n.d. https://www.3dprintingmedia.network/the-top-ten-hybrid-manufacturing... (accessed February 7, 2020).
[145] DMG Mori. All in 1: Laser Deposition Welding & Milling -additive Manufacturing in Milling quality 2014:1–12.
[146] Multi-tasking M-H. INTEGREX i-400S AM n.d. https://www.mazakusa.com/machines/integrex-i-400s-am/ (accessed February 7, 2020).
[147] Matsuura. LUMEX Series n.d. https://www.lumex-matsuura.com/english/lumex-avance-25 (accessed February 7, 2020).
[148] LENS Systems - 3D Printing Metals n.d. https://optomec.com/3d-printed-metals/lens-printers/ (accessed February 7, 2020).
[149] OPM350L - Sodick. n.d.
[150] ADD+Process - IBARMIA n.d. https://www.ibarmia.com/en/today/ibarmia-hybrid-machine-additive-com... (accessed February 7, 2020).
[151] The World´s First Hybrid Turbine Blade & Turbo Fan Remannufacturing Machine n.d.
[152] Grzesik W. Hybrid manufacturing of metallic parts integrated additive and subtractive processes. Mechanik 2018;91:468–75. https://doi.org/10.17814/mechanik.2018.7.58.
[153] 5 axis machining center HSTM 2020. https://www.hamuel.de/en/products/5-axis-machining-center-hstm (accessed November 26, 2020).
[154] MetalFAB1 - Additive Industries n.d. https://www.additiveindustries.com/systems/metalfab1 (accessed February 20, 2020).
[155] Metal 3D printing tools for any CNC - 3D Hybrid n.d. http://www.3dhybridsolutions.com/ (accessed February 7, 2020).
[156] 3D Printing Metal Without Melting? - Fabrisonic n.d. https://fabrisonic.com/technology/ (accessed February 7, 2020).
[157] Ambit - Dextrous Manufacturing n.d. http://www.hybridmanutech.com/ (accessed February 7, 2020).
[158] Urhal P, Weightman A, Diver C, Bartolo P. Robot assisted additive manufacturing: A review. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 2019;59:335–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2019.05.005.
[159] Krimpenis AA, Papapaschos V, Bontarenko E. HydraX, a 3D printed robotic arm for Hybrid Manufacturing. Part I: Custom Design, Manufacturing and Assembly. Procedia Manuf 2020;51:103–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2020.10.016.
[160] Chen L, Lau TY, Tang K. Manufacturability analysis and process planning for additive and subtractive hybrid manufacturing of Quasi-rotational parts with columnar features. CAD Comput Aided Des 2020;118:102759. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cad.2019.102759.
[161] OPM250L Sodick’s new OPM250L – Additive Manufacturing plus CNC milling combined for the first time in one machine. Sodick n.d. https://www.sodick.org/products/additive-manufacturing/opm250l.html (accessed April 7, 2020).
[162] OPM250L Experience Creating the Future ew Creat New Form n.d.
[163] Matsuura’s manufacturing as we learn from sample workpieces. Ser Matsuura - Lumex n.d. https://www.lumex-matsuura.com/english/samplework (accessed April 7, 2020).
[164] Additive Manufacturing - The integration of additive manufacturing technology and multi-tasking machining. Mazak n.d. https://www.mazakeu.co.uk/AM/ (accessed April 8, 2020).
[165] Yasa E, Poyraz O, Cizioglu N, Pilatin S. Repair and Manufacturing of High Performance Tools by Additive Manufacturing. Des Prod Mach DIES/MOLDS 2018:245–51.
[166] Ren L, Padathu AP, Ruan J, Sparks T, Liou FW. Three dimensional die repair using a hybrid manufacturing system. 17th Solid Free Fabr Symp SFF 2006 2006:51–9.
[167] Bennett J, Garcia D, Kendrick M, Hartman T, Hyatt G, Ehmann K, et al. Repairing Automotive Dies with Directed Energy Deposition: Industrial Application and Life Cycle Analysis. J Manuf Sci Eng Trans ASME 2019;141. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4042078.
[168] Zhang X, Cui W, Li W, Liou F. A hybrid process integrating reverse engineering, pre-repair processing, additive manufacturing, and material testing for component remanufacturing. Materials (Basel) 2019;12. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12121961.
[169] Buchmayr B. Damage, Lifetime, and Repair of Forging Dies. BHM Berg- Und Hüttenmännische Monatshefte 2017;162:88–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00501-016-0566-3.
[170] Hawryluk M, Dobras D, Kaszuba M, Widomski P, Ziemba J. Influence of the different variants of the surface treatment on the durability of forging dies made of Unimax steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2020;107:4725–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05357-z.
[171] Le VT, Paris H, Mandil G. Process planning for combined additive and subtractive manufacturing technologies in a remanufacturing context. J Manuf Syst 2017;44:243–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmsy.2017.06.003.
[172] Praniewicz M, Feldhausen T, Kersten S, Berez J, Jost E, Kurfess T, et al. Integrated Hardfacing of Stellite-6 Using Hybrid Manufacturing Process 2019:314–27.
[173] Yin S, Yan X, Chen C, Jenkins R, Liu M, Lupoi R. Hybrid additive manufacturing of Al-Ti6Al4V functionally graded materials with selective laser melting and cold spraying. J Mater Process Technol 2018;255:650–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.01.015.
[174] Naebe M, Shirvanimoghaddam K. Functionally graded materials: A review of fabrication and properties. Appl Mater Today 2016;5:223–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmt.2016.10.001.
[175] Liu W, DuPont JN. Fabrication of functionally graded TiC/Ti composites by laser engineered net shaping. Scr Mater 2003;48:1337–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6462(03)00020-4.
[176] Li W, Karnati S, Kriewall C, Liou F, Newkirk J, Brown Taminger KM, et al. Fabrication and characterization of a functionally graded material from Ti-6Al-4V to SS316 by laser metal deposition. Addit Manuf 2017;14:95–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2016.12.006.
[177] Chen B, Su Y, Xie Z, Tan C, Feng J. Development and characterization of 316L/Inconel625 functionally graded material fabricated by laser direct metal deposition. Opt Laser Technol 2020;123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2019.105916.
[178] Ford RG. Functionally graded materials. vol. 56. 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0026-0657(01)80632-9.
[179] Oshkour AA, Osman NAA, Bayat M, Afshar R, Berto F. Three-dimensional finite element analyses of functionally graded femoral prostheses with different geometrical configurations. Mater Des 2014;56:998–1008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.12.054.
[180] Ait Moussa A, Yadav R. Optimization of a Functionally Graded Material Stem in the Femoral Component of a Cemented Hip Arthroplasty: Influence of Dimensionality of FGM. J Med Eng 2017;2017:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3069351.
[181] Sadollah A, Bahreininejad A, Eskandar H, Hamdi M. Optimum material gradient for functionally graded dental implant using particle swarm optimization. Adv Mater Res 2013;647:30–6. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.647.30.
[182] Swaminathan K, Sangeetha DM. Thermal analysis of FGM plates – A critical review of various modeling techniques and solution methods. Compos Struct 2017;160:43–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2016.10.047.
[183] Ramakrishnan A, Dinda GP. Functionally graded metal matrix composite of Haynes 282 and SiC fabricated by laser metal deposition. Mater Des 2019;179:107877. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2019.107877.
[184] Siva Prasad H, Brueckner F, Volpp J, Kaplan AFH. Laser metal deposition of copper on diverse metals using green laser sources. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2020;107:1559–68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05117-z.
[185] Strong D, Sirichakwal I, Manogharan GP, Wakefield T. Current state and potential of additive - Hybrid manufacturing for metal parts. Rapid Prototyp J 2017;23:577–88. https://doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-04-2016-0065.
[186] Shunmugavel M, Polishetty A, Nomani J, Goldberg M, Littlefair G. Metallurgical and Machinability Characteristics of Wrought and Selective Laser Melted Ti-6Al-4V. J Metall 2016;2016:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7407918.
[187] Milton S, Morandeau A, Chalon F, Leroy R. Influence of Finish Machining on the Surface Integrity of Ti6Al4V Produced by Selective Laser Melting. Procedia CIRP 2016;45:127–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2016.02.340.
[188] López de Lacalle Marcaide LN, Sánchez Galíndez JA, Lamikiz Menchaca A. Mecanizado de alto rendimiento. Ediciones. 2004.
[189] Choudhury I., El-Baradie M. Machinability of nickel-base super alloys: a general review. J Mater Process Technol 1998;77:278–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(97)00429-9.
[190] Sharman ARC, Hughes JI, Ridgway K. Workpiece surface integrity and tool life issues when turning Inconel 718 (TM) nickel based superalloy. Mach Sci Technol 2004;8:399–414. https://doi.org/10.1081/LMST-200039865.
[191] Zaman HA, Sharif S, Kim DW, Idris MH, Suhaimi MA, Tumurkhuyag Z. Machinability of Cobalt-based and Cobalt Chromium Molybdenum Alloys - A Review. Procedia Manuf 2017;11:563–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2017.07.150.
[192] Oyelola O, Crawforth P, M’Saoubi R, Clare AT. Machining of Additively Manufactured Parts: Implications for Surface Integrity. Procedia CIRP 2016;45:119–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2016.02.066.
[193] Hojati F, Daneshi A, Soltani B, Azarhoushang B, Biermann D. Study on machinability of additively manufactured and conventional titanium alloys in micro-milling process. Precis Eng 2020;62:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precisioneng.2019.11.002.
[194] Aldwell B, Kelly E, Wall R, Amaldi A, O’Donnell GE, Lupoi R. Machinability of Al 6061 Deposited with Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing. J Therm Spray Technol 2017;26:1573–84. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11666-017-0586-x.
[195] Calleja A, Urbikain G, González H, Cerrillo I, Polvorosa R, Lamikiz A. Inconel®718 superalloy machinability evaluation after laser cladding additive manufacturing process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2018;97:2873–85. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-2169-5.
[196] Cortina M, Arrizubieta JI, Ruiz JE, Ukar E, Lamikiz A. Latest developments in industrial hybrid machine tools that combine additive and subtractive operations. Materials (Basel) 2018;11. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122583.
[197] Paul R, Anand S, Gerner F. Effect of thermal deformation on part errors in metal powder based additive manufacturing processes. J Manuf Sci Eng Trans ASME 2014;136. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4026524.
[198] Das P, Chandran R, Samant R, Anand S. Optimum Part Build Orientation in Additive Manufacturing for Minimizing Part Errors and Support Structures. Procedia Manuf 2015;1:343–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2015.09.041.
[199] Eisenbarth D, Soffel F, Wegener K. Effects of direct metal deposition combined with intermediate and final milling on part distortion. Virtual Phys Prototyp 2019;14:130–4. https://doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2018.1532799.
[200] Lu QY, Wong CH. Applications of non-destructive testing techniques for post-process control of additively manufactured parts. Virtual Phys Prototyp 2017;12:301–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/17452759.2017.1357319.
[201] Montinaro N, Cerniglia D, Pitarresi G. Defect detection in additively manufactured titanium prosthesis by flying laser scanning thermography. Procedia Struct Integr 2018;12:165–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prostr.2018.11.098.
[202] Hebert RJ. Viewpoint: metallurgical aspects of powder bed metal additive manufacturing. J Mater Sci 2016;51:1165–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-015-9479-x.
[203] (Renishaw) MS. Meeting the Machining Challenges of Additive Manufacturing. Mod Mach Shop 2017. https://www.mmsonline.com/articles/meeting-the-machining-challenges-... (accessed April 8, 2020).
[204] Manogharan G, Wysk R, Harrysson O, Aman R. AIMS - A Metal Additive-hybrid Manufacturing System: System Architecture and Attributes. Procedia Manuf 2015;1:273–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2015.09.021.

Permalink -


  • 446
    total views
  • 1
    total downloads
  • 6
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Elastomer-based visuotactile sensor for normality of robotic manufacturing systems
Hassanin, H., Zaid, I., Halwani, M., Ayyad, A., Imam, A., Almaskari, F. and Zweiri, Y. 2022. Elastomer-based visuotactile sensor for normality of robotic manufacturing systems. Polymers. 14 (23), p. 5097. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14235097
Techno-economic feasibility of retired electric-vehicle batteries repurpose/reuse in second-life applications: A systematic review
Hassanin, H., Al-Alawi, M. and Cugley, J. 2022. Techno-economic feasibility of retired electric-vehicle batteries repurpose/reuse in second-life applications: A systematic review. Energy and Climate Change. 3 (100086). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egycc.2022.100086
Planning, operation, and design of market-based virtual power plant considering uncertainty
Hassanin, H., Ullah, Z., Arshad, Cugley, J. and Al-Alawi, M. 2022. Planning, operation, and design of market-based virtual power plant considering uncertainty. Energies. 19 (15), p. 7290. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15197290
The epistemic insight digest: Issue : Autumn 2022
Gordon, A., Shalet, D., Simpson, S., Hassanin, H., Lawson, F., Lawson, M., Litchfield, A., Thomas, C., Canetta, E., Manley, K. and Choong, C. Shalet, D. (ed.) 2022. The epistemic insight digest: Issue : Autumn 2022. Canterbury Canterbury Christ Church University.
Modeling, optimization, and analysis of a virtual power plant demand response mechanism for the internal electricity market considering the uncertainty of renewable energy sources
Ullah, Z., Arshad and Hassanin, H. 2022. Modeling, optimization, and analysis of a virtual power plant demand response mechanism for the internal electricity market considering the uncertainty of renewable energy sources. Energies. 15 (14), p. 5296. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.3390/en15145296
Interdisciplinary engineering education - essential for the 21st century
Gordon, A., Simpson, S. and Hassanin, H. 2022. Interdisciplinary engineering education - essential for the 21st century.
Fabrication and optimisation of Ti-6Al-4V lattice-structured total shoulder implants using laser additive manufacturing
Hassanin, H., Bittredge, O., El-Sayed, M., Eldessouky, H., A. Alsaleh, N., Alrasheedi, N., Essa, K. and Ahmadein, M. 2022. Fabrication and optimisation of Ti-6Al-4V lattice-structured total shoulder implants using laser additive manufacturing. Materials. 15 (9), p. 3095. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093095
Multipoint forming using hole-type rubber punch
Hassanin, H., Tolipov, A., El-Sayed, M., Eldessouky, H., A. Alsaleh, N., Alfozan, A., Essa, K. and Ahmadein, M. 2022. Multipoint forming using hole-type rubber punch. Metals. 12 (3), p. 491. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12030491
Influence of bifilm defects generated during mould filling on the tensile properties of Al–Si–Mg cast alloys
El-Sayed, M., Essa, K. and Hassanin, H. 2022. Influence of bifilm defects generated during mould filling on the tensile properties of Al–Si–Mg cast alloys. Metals. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12010160
Effect of runner thickness and hydrogen content on the mechanical properties of A356 alloy castings
El-Sayed, M., Essa, K. and Hassanin, H. 2021. Effect of runner thickness and hydrogen content on the mechanical properties of A356 alloy castings . International Journal of Metalcasting. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40962-021-00753-x
Parts design and process optimization
Hassanin, Hany, Bidare, Prveen, Zweiri, Yahya and Essa, Khamis 2021. Parts design and process optimization. in: Salunkhe, S., Hussein, H. and Davim, J. (ed.) Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Additive Manufacturing USA IGI Global. pp. 25-49
Multi stages toolpath optimisation of single point incremental forming process
Hassanin, H., Yan, Z, El-Sayed, M., Eldessouky, H., Djuansjah, J., Alsaleh, N., Essa, K. and Ahmadein, M. 2021. Multi stages toolpath optimisation of single point incremental forming process. Materials. 14 (22), p. 6794. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226794
Micro-additive manufacturing technologies of three-dimensional MEMS
Hassanin, H., Sheikholeslami, G., Pooya, S. and Ishaq, R. 2021. Micro-additive manufacturing technologies of three-dimensional MEMS . Advanced Engineering Materials. https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.202100422
Machine learning applied to the design and inspection of reinforced concrete bridges: Resilient methods and emerging applications
Fan , W., Chen, Y., Li, J., Sun, Y., Feng, F., Hassanin, H. and Sareh, P. 2021. Machine learning applied to the design and inspection of reinforced concrete bridges: Resilient methods and emerging applications. Structures. 33, pp. 3954-3963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2021.06.110
Porosity, cracks, and mechanical properties of additively manufactured tooling alloys: A review
Bidare, P., Jiménez, A., Hassanin, H. and Essa, K. 2021. Porosity, cracks, and mechanical properties of additively manufactured tooling alloys: A review. Advances in Manufacturing. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40436-021-00365-y
Laser powder bed fusion of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo alloy and properties prediction using deep learning approaches
Hassanin, H., Zweiri, Y., Finet, L., Essa, K., Qiu, C. and Attallah, M. 2021. Laser powder bed fusion of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo alloy and properties prediction using deep learning approaches. Materials. 14 (8), p. 2056. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14082056
3DP printing of oral solid formulations: a systematic review
Brambilla, C., Okafor-Muo, O., Hassanin, H. and ElShaer, A. 2021. 3DP printing of oral solid formulations: a systematic review. Pharmaceutics. 13 (3), p. 358. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13030358
Micro-fabrication of ceramics: additive manufacturing and conventional technologies
Hassanin, H., Essa, K., Elshaer, A., Imbaby, M. and El-Sayed, T. E. 2021. Micro-fabrication of ceramics: additive manufacturing and conventional technologies. Journal of Advanced Ceramics. 10, pp. 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40145-020-0422-5
4D Printing of origami structures for minimally invasive surgeries using functional scaffold
Langford, T, Mohammed, A., Essa, K., Elshaer, A. and Hassanin, H. 2020. 4D Printing of origami structures for minimally invasive surgeries using functional scaffold. Applied Sciences. 11 (1), p. 332. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010332
Reconfigurable multipoint forming using waffle-type elastic cushion and variable loading profile
Hassanin, H., Mohammed, M., Abdel-Wahab, A. and Essa, K 2020. Reconfigurable multipoint forming using waffle-type elastic cushion and variable loading profile. Materials.
3D printing of solid oral dosage forms: numerous challenges with unique opportunities
Hassanin, H. 2020. 3D printing of solid oral dosage forms: numerous challenges with unique opportunities. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2020.08.029
Design optimisation of additively manufactured titanium lattice structures for biomedical implants
El-Sayed, M.A., Essa, K., Ghazy, M. and Hassanin, H. 2020. Design optimisation of additively manufactured titanium lattice structures for biomedical implants. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05982-8
4D Printing of NiTi auxetic structure with improved ballistic performance
Hassanin, H., Abena, A., Elsayed, M.A. and Essa, K. 2020. 4D Printing of NiTi auxetic structure with improved ballistic performance. Micromachines. 11 (8), p. 745. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.3390/mi11080745