Centre of pressure, vertical ground reaction forces and neuromuscular responses of special-forces soldiers to 43km load carriage in the field

Journal article


Scales, J., O'Driscoll, J., Coleman, D., Giannoglou, D, Gkougkoulis, I, Ntontis, I, Zisopoulou, C and Brown, M. 2020. Centre of pressure, vertical ground reaction forces and neuromuscular responses of special-forces soldiers to 43km load carriage in the field. Journal of Applied Biomechanics.
AuthorsScales, J., O'Driscoll, J., Coleman, D., Giannoglou, D, Gkougkoulis, I, Ntontis, I, Zisopoulou, C and Brown, M.
Abstract

The primary purpose of this study was to examine lateral deviations in centre of pressure as a result of an extreme duration load carriage task, with particular focus on heel contact. Twenty (n=17 males, n=3 females) soldiers from a Special Operation Forces unit (body mass: 80.72±21.49kg; stature:178.25±8.75cm; age: 26±9yrs) underwent gait plantar pressure assessment and vertical jump testing before and after a 43km load carriage event (duration 817.02[32.66]min) carrying a total external load of 29.80 (1.05)kg. Vertical jump height decreased by 18.62%±16.85% (0.30±0.08m to 0.24±0.07m) p<.001. Loading peak and mid stance force minimum were significantly increased after load carriage (2.59±0.51BW vs. 2.81±0.61BW; p=.035; dGlass=0.44 and 1.28±0.40BW vs. 1.46±0.41BW; p=.015 dGlass=0.45, respectively) and increases in lateral centre of pressure displacement were observed as a result of the load carriage task 14.64±3.62mm to 16.97 ±3.94mm p<.029. In conclusion, load carriage instigated a decrease in neuromuscular function alongside increases in ground reaction forces associated with injury risk and centre of pressure changes associated with ankle sprain risk. Practitioners should consider that possible reduction in ankle stability remains even once the load had been removed, suggesting soldiers are still at increased risk of injury even once the load has been removed.

KeywordsMilitary load carriage; Injury risk; Ankle
Year2020
JournalJournal of Applied Biomechanics
PublisherHuman Kinetics
ISSN1065-8483
Publication process dates
Accepted13 May 2020
Deposited26 Jun 2020
Accepted author manuscript
Output statusIn press
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Cole, M., Hopker, J., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2013. Carbohydrate ingestion improves gross cycling efficiency and subsequent time-trial performance.
The effects of isometric wall squat exercise on heart rate and blood pressure in a normotensive population
Goldring, N., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2013. The effects of isometric wall squat exercise on heart rate and blood pressure in a normotensive population. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2013.809471
The influence of training status, age, and muscle fibre type on cycling efficiency and endurance performance
Hopker, J., Coleman, D., Gregson, H., Jobson, S., Von der Haar, T., Wiles, J. and Passfield, L. 2013. The influence of training status, age, and muscle fibre type on cycling efficiency and endurance performance. Journal of Applied Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00361.2013
The reliability of responses to repeated laboratory assessment: the evaluation of a preload-performance protocol in runners
Baker, D., Coleman, D. and Wiles, J. 2011. The reliability of responses to repeated laboratory assessment: the evaluation of a preload-performance protocol in runners.
Inverse relationship between VO2max and gross efficiency.
Hopker, J., Coleman, D., Jobson, S. and Passfield, L. 2012. Inverse relationship between VO2max and gross efficiency. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 33 (10), pp. 789-794. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1304640
Response to "Thinking outside the bag (not necessarily outside the lab)"
Passfield, L., Hopker, J., Jobson, S., Gregson, H. and Coleman, D. 2012. Response to "Thinking outside the bag (not necessarily outside the lab)". Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 44 (10), p. 2041. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182645284
Change in lactate accumulation after isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure
Swaine, I., Devereux, G., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2011. Change in lactate accumulation after isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure.
Rapid loss of isometric training-induced reductions in resting blood pressure
Wiles, J., Devereux, G., Coleman, D. and Swaine, I. 2011. Rapid loss of isometric training-induced reductions in resting blood pressure.
Change in the immediate post-exercise blood pressure response after isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure
Wiles, J., Swaine, I., Howden, R., McCartney, N. and Coleman, D. 2011. Change in the immediate post-exercise blood pressure response after isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure.
Cardio-pulmonary responses to whole-body simulated swimming using a novel swimming training machine
Swaine, I., Wiles, J., Coleman, D., Hunter, A. and Carlton, K. 2010. Cardio-pulmonary responses to whole-body simulated swimming using a novel swimming training machine.
Lactate accumulation following isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure
Devereux, G., Coleman, D., Wiles, J. and Swaine, I. 2012. Lactate accumulation following isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure. Journal of Sports Sciences. 30 (11), pp. 1141-1148. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.692482
The relationship between indices of fatigue and femoral artery post exercise hyperaemia after double-leg isometric exercise at increasing intensities
Smith, J., Wiles, J., Swaine, I. and Coleman, D. 2012. The relationship between indices of fatigue and femoral artery post exercise hyperaemia after double-leg isometric exercise at increasing intensities.
The effects of four weeks home-based isometric exercise training on resting blood pressure
Goldring, N., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2012. The effects of four weeks home-based isometric exercise training on resting blood pressure.
The effects of isometric wall squat exercise on heart rate and blood pressure in a normotensive population
Goldring, N., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2010. The effects of isometric wall squat exercise on heart rate and blood pressure in a normotensive population.
The influence of nutritional interventions on the measurement of gross efficiency during cycling
Cole, M., Coleman, D. and Wiles, J. 2012. The influence of nutritional interventions on the measurement of gross efficiency during cycling.
The effect of short-term dietary manipulation on gross efficiency during cycling
Cole, M., Coleman, D. and Wiles, J. 2011. The effect of short-term dietary manipulation on gross efficiency during cycling.
The physiological demands of road cycling
Coleman, D. 2012. The physiological demands of road cycling. in: Hopker, J. and Jobson, S. (ed.) Performance Cycling: The Science of Success London Bloomsbury. pp. 2-19
Reliability of cycling gross efficiency using the Douglas bag method
Hopker, J., Jobson, S., Gregson, H. and Coleman, D. 2012. Reliability of cycling gross efficiency using the Douglas bag method. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 44 (2), pp. 290-296. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822cb0d2
The effect of the rotor crank system on time-trial cycling performance
Coleman, D., Hopker, J., Jobson, S., Galbraith, A. and Nevill, A. 2008. The effect of the rotor crank system on time-trial cycling performance.
A comparison of performance related responses during a 16km time trial between senior and veteran cyclists
Balmer, J., Coleman, D., Davison, R., Smith, M. and Bird, S. 1998. A comparison of performance related responses during a 16km time trial between senior and veteran cyclists.
Pedal forces and gross efficiency in cyclists
Coleman, D. 2009. Pedal forces and gross efficiency in cyclists.
Effects of walking to and from school on primary school children
Woolf-May, K., Ford, P., Swaine, I., Coleman, D. and Bailey, R. 2007. Effects of walking to and from school on primary school children. Pediatric Exercise Science. 19 (4).
Activation and contribution of trunk and leg musculature to force production during on-water sprint kayak performance
Brown, M., Lauder, M. and Dyson, R. 2010. Activation and contribution of trunk and leg musculature to force production during on-water sprint kayak performance.
The effect of two different 18-week walking programmes on aerobic fitness, selected blood lipids and factor XIIa
Woolf-May, K., Kearney, E., Jones, D., Davison, C., Coleman, D. and Bird, S. 1998. The effect of two different 18-week walking programmes on aerobic fitness, selected blood lipids and factor XIIa. Journal of Sports Sciences. 16 (8), pp. 701-710. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404198366335
Placebo effect of an inert gel on experimentally induced leg muscle pain
Hopker, J., Foad, A., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Leach, G. 2010. Placebo effect of an inert gel on experimentally induced leg muscle pain. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine. 1, pp. 215-221.
Differing autonomic responses to dobutamine stress in the presence and absence of myocardial ischaemia
Sharma, R., O'Driscoll, J., Bromley, P., Sritharan, M. and Rosen, S. 2008. Differing autonomic responses to dobutamine stress in the presence and absence of myocardial ischaemia.
Dobutamine stress echocardiography accurately detects significant coronary artery disease in Indian Asians living in the United Kingdom
Itam, S., O'Driscoll, J., Milad, E. and Sharma, R. 2008. Dobutamine stress echocardiography accurately detects significant coronary artery disease in Indian Asians living in the United Kingdom.
The effects of a high-protein, paleolithic-type diet on body composition and exercise performance in amateur mixed martial artists
Slee, A., O'Driscoll, J., Burnet, S., Hughes, G. and Chen, M. 2009. The effects of a high-protein, paleolithic-type diet on body composition and exercise performance in amateur mixed martial artists.
Subjective global assessment is an independent predictor of cardiac ischaemia in patients with mild chronic kidney disease
Aldous, G., Sharma, R., O'Driscoll, J., Ashby, D., Tarn, F. and Choi, P. 2010. Subjective global assessment is an independent predictor of cardiac ischaemia in patients with mild chronic kidney disease.
A National Health Service hospital's cardiac rehabilitation programme: a qualitative analysis of provision
O'Driscoll, J., Shave, R. and Cushion, C. 2007. A National Health Service hospital's cardiac rehabilitation programme: a qualitative analysis of provision. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 16 (10), pp. 1908-1918. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.01815.x
Inequalities in the training and implementation of cardiac rehabilitation in the United Kingdom
O'Driscoll, J. and Sharma, R. 2009. Inequalities in the training and implementation of cardiac rehabilitation in the United Kingdom. in: Bennington, E. (ed.) Horizons in World Cardiovascular Research Hauppauge, New York Nova Science Publishers.
Effects of isometric exercise training intensity upon reductions in resting systolic blood pressure
Wiles, J., Coleman, D. and Swaine, I. 2008. Effects of isometric exercise training intensity upon reductions in resting systolic blood pressure.
A novel method for the performance of isometric exercise in the home
Wiles, J., Coleman, D., Dunford, M. and Swaine, I. 2004. A novel method for the performance of isometric exercise in the home.
The precision with which isometric exercise training can be performed according to a given heart rate
Swaine, I., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2008. The precision with which isometric exercise training can be performed according to a given heart rate.
Effects of three types of isometric leg exercise at the same relative exercise intensities on blood pressure
Swaine, I., Wiles, J., Dunford, M. and Coleman, D. 2004. Effects of three types of isometric leg exercise at the same relative exercise intensities on blood pressure.
The freely chosen contribution of the leg kick to the total power during simulated front crawl swimming on a onland ergometer
Swaine, I., Dunford, M., Wiles, J., Coleman, D., Hunter, A. and Carlton, K. 2006. The freely chosen contribution of the leg kick to the total power during simulated front crawl swimming on a onland ergometer.
The reliability of maximal power and 40km outdoor time trial cycling performance
Smith, M., Davison, R., Coleman, D., Balmer, J. and Bird, S. 2000. The reliability of maximal power and 40km outdoor time trial cycling performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 32 (S291).
The effect of different lactate elevation protocols on the lactate minimum
Smith, M., Davison, R., Balmer, J., Coleman, D. and Bird, S. 1999. The effect of different lactate elevation protocols on the lactate minimum. Journal of Sports Sciences. 17, pp. 44-45.
Physiological responses during cycle time trials: variable versus constant power output
Kirkland, A. and Coleman, D. 2009. Physiological responses during cycle time trials: variable versus constant power output. Journal of Sports Sciences. 26 (S130).
Reliability of time to exhaustion at critical power
Kirkland, A. and Coleman, D. 2006. Reliability of time to exhaustion at critical power.
Reliability of time to exhaustion at critical power
Kirkland, A. and Coleman, D. 2006. Reliability of time to exhaustion at critical power.
The effect of the Rotor crank system on time-trial cycling performance
Hopker, J., Jobson, S., Galbraith, A., Coleman, D. and Nevill, A. 2009. The effect of the Rotor crank system on time-trial cycling performance. Journal of Sports Sciences. 26 (S112).
Relationships between gross, delta and pedalling efficiency
Hopker, J. and Coleman, D. 2006. Relationships between gross, delta and pedalling efficiency.
Differences in daily activity levels, dietary energy intake and body composition in primary school children who walk to and from school compared to those who travel by car
Ford, P., Bailey, R., Coleman, D., Woolf-May, K. and Swaine, I. 2006. Differences in daily activity levels, dietary energy intake and body composition in primary school children who walk to and from school compared to those who travel by car.
Caffeine works: whether you believe it or not: evidence for pharmacological effects of caffeine ingestion on 40km cycling performance
Foad, A., Beedie, C. and Coleman, D. 2006. Caffeine works: whether you believe it or not: evidence for pharmacological effects of caffeine ingestion on 40km cycling performance.
The effect of altering ramp rate on the determination of lactate minimum in cyclists
Davison, R., Coleman, D., Balmer, J. and Bird, S. 1998. The effect of altering ramp rate on the determination of lactate minimum in cyclists. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 30 (S306).
Variability of power output during 40km outdoor time-trial cycling performance
Davison, R., Smith, M., Coleman, D., Balmer, J. and Bird, S. 2000. Variability of power output during 40km outdoor time-trial cycling performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 32 (S291).
The reliability of power output recorded during a maximal aerobic power test using an SRM powercrank and Kingcycle test rig
Davison, R., Balmer, J., Morgan, G., Coleman, D. and Bird, S. 2000. The reliability of power output recorded during a maximal aerobic power test using an SRM powercrank and Kingcycle test rig. Journal of Sports Sciences. 18, pp. 29-30.
Correlates of cycling hill climb ability
Coleman, D., Davison, R., Swan, D. and Bird, S. 1997. Correlates of cycling hill climb ability. Journal of Sports Sciences. 15 (1), pp. 42-43. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404197367560
The effect of gradient upon cardio respiratory responses and gross mechanical efficiency at the same power output during cycling
Coleman, D., Davison, R., Balmer, J., Proffitt, A., Theakston, S. and Bird, S. 1998. The effect of gradient upon cardio respiratory responses and gross mechanical efficiency at the same power output during cycling. Journal of Sports Sciences. 16 (26).
The energy demands of competitive road race cycling
Coleman, D., Davison, R., Balmer, J., Nunn, M. and Bird, S. 1998. The energy demands of competitive road race cycling. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 30 (S305).
The effect of prior cycling on the relationship between maximal test parameters and simulated hill climb performance
Coleman, D., Bird, S. and Davison, R. 2002. The effect of prior cycling on the relationship between maximal test parameters and simulated hill climb performance. Journal of Sports Sciences. 20, pp. 18-19.
The effect of creatine supplementation on endurance performance
Coleman, D., Passfield, L., Hales, T. and Wright, M. 1995. The effect of creatine supplementation on endurance performance. Journal of Sports Sciences. 13, pp. 23-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419508732212
Placebo effects of ergogenic aids in sports performance: experimental, psychometric and interview data
Beedie, C., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Uphill, M. 2006. Placebo effects of ergogenic aids in sports performance: experimental, psychometric and interview data.
Is caffeine all in the head? Evidence for the placebo effects attributable to caffeine in cycling performance
Beedie, C., Stuart, E., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2006. Is caffeine all in the head? Evidence for the placebo effects attributable to caffeine in cycling performance.
Maximal power predicts outdoor 16 and 40km cycling time trial power but not performance time
Balmer, J., Smith, M., Davison, R., Coleman, D. and Bird, S. 2000. Maximal power predicts outdoor 16 and 40km cycling time trial power but not performance time. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 32 (S292).
A comparison of power output recorded by an SRM powercrank and Kingcycle test rig
Balmer, J., Davison, R., Coleman, D. and Bird, S. 2000. A comparison of power output recorded by an SRM powercrank and Kingcycle test rig. Journal of Sports Sciences. 18, pp. 27-28.
Blood lactate and cardio-respiratory responses when cycling for 70min at lactate minimum power output
Balmer, J., Coleman, D., Davison, R., Theakston, S. and Bird, S. 1998. Blood lactate and cardio-respiratory responses when cycling for 70min at lactate minimum power output. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 30, pp. 306-306.
A comparison of ventilatory responses during a ramp test between senior and veteran cyclists
Balmer, J., Coleman, D., Davison, R., Theakston, S. and Bird, S. 1998. A comparison of ventilatory responses during a ramp test between senior and veteran cyclists. Journal of Sports Sciences. 16, pp. 35-36.
A comparison of performance related responses during a 16-km time trial
Balmer, J., Coleman, D., Davison, R., Smith, M. and Bird, S. 1998. A comparison of performance related responses during a 16-km time trial.
A comparison of the blood lactate responses in senior and veteran cyclists during a 16-km time trial
Balmer, J., Coleman, D., Davison, R. and Bird, S. 1999. A comparison of the blood lactate responses in senior and veteran cyclists during a 16-km time trial. Journal of Sports Sciences. 17, pp. 25-25.
The correlation of blood lactate assessments with 16km cycling time-trial performance: the effect of age
Balmer, J., Coleman, D., Davison, R. and Bird, S. 1997. The correlation of blood lactate assessments with 16km cycling time-trial performance: the effect of age. Journal of Sports Sciences. 15, pp. 37-37.
The relationship between selected cardiovascular variables and exercise intensity during continuous and discontinuous incremental exercise tests
Allum, S., Wiles, J., Coleman, D. and Swaine, I. 2006. The relationship between selected cardiovascular variables and exercise intensity during continuous and discontinuous incremental exercise tests.
Assessment of blood lactate: practical evaluation of the Biosen 5030 lactate analyzer
Davison, R., Coleman, D., Balmer, J., Nunn, M., Theakston, S., Burrows, M. and Bird, S. 2000. Assessment of blood lactate: practical evaluation of the Biosen 5030 lactate analyzer. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 32 (1), pp. 243-247.
The validity of power output recorded during exercise performance tests using a Kingcycle air-braked cycle ergometer when compared with an SRM powermeter
Balmer, J., Davison, R., Coleman, D. and Bird, S. 2000. The validity of power output recorded during exercise performance tests using a Kingcycle air-braked cycle ergometer when compared with an SRM powermeter. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 21 (3), pp. 195-199. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-9466
Familiarisation and reliability of sprint test indices during laboratory and field assessment
Hopker, J., Coleman, D., Wiles, J. and Galbraith, A. 2009. Familiarisation and reliability of sprint test indices during laboratory and field assessment. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 8 (4), pp. 528-532.
Changes in cycling efficiency during a competitive season
Hopker, J., Coleman, D. and Passfield, L. 2009. Changes in cycling efficiency during a competitive season. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 41 (4), pp. 912-919. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818f2ab2
Occurrence of injury during officer safety training at Kent Police
Andrew, J., Henry, T., Coleman, D. and Wiles, J. 2009. Occurrence of injury during officer safety training at Kent Police. The Police Journal. 82 (3), pp. 265-274. https://doi.org/10.1350/pojo.2009.82.3.455
Effect of the Rotor crank system on cycling performance
Jobson, S., Hopker, J., Galbraith, A., Coleman, D. and Nevill, A. 2009. Effect of the Rotor crank system on cycling performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 8 (3), pp. 463-467.
The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review
Hopker, J., Passfield, L., Coleman, D., Jobson, S., Edwards, L. and Carter, H. 2009. The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 30 (12), pp. 845-850. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1237712
The effects of performing isometric training at two exercise intensities in healthy young males
Wiles, J., Coleman, D. and Swaine, I. 2010. The effects of performing isometric training at two exercise intensities in healthy young males. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 108 (3), pp. 419-428. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1025-6
The effect of training volume and intensity on competitive cyclists’ efficiency
Hopker, J., Coleman, D., Passfield, L. and Wiles, J. 2010. The effect of training volume and intensity on competitive cyclists’ efficiency. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 35 (1), pp. 17-22. https://doi.org/10.1139/H09-124
Reproducibility of limb power outputs and cardiopulmonary responses to exercise using a novel swimming training machine
Swaine, I., Hunter, A., Carlton, K., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2010. Reproducibility of limb power outputs and cardiopulmonary responses to exercise using a novel swimming training machine. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 31 (12), pp. 854-859. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1265175
Identification of placebo responsive participants in 40km laboratory cycling performance
Beedie, C., Foad, A. and Coleman, D. 2008. Identification of placebo responsive participants in 40km laboratory cycling performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 7 (1), pp. 166-175.
Determination of the lactate minimum points in cyclists
Davison, R., Coleman, D. and Bird, S. 1997. Determination of the lactate minimum points in cyclists. Journal of Sports Sciences. 15, pp. 45-46.
Correlates of simulated hill climb cycling performance
Davison, R., Swan, D., Coleman, D. and Bird, S. 2000. Correlates of simulated hill climb cycling performance. Journal of Sports Sciences. 18 (2), pp. 105-110. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404100365171
Activity levels, dietary energy intake, and body composition in children who walk to school
Ford, P., Bailey, R., Coleman, D., Woolf-May, K. and Swaine, I. 2007. Activity levels, dietary energy intake, and body composition in children who walk to school. Pediatric Exercise Science. 19 (4), pp. 393-407.
Pharmacological and psychological effects of caffeine ingestion in 40-km cycling performance
Foad, A., Beedie, C. and Coleman, D. 2008. Pharmacological and psychological effects of caffeine ingestion in 40-km cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 40 (1), pp. 158-165. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e3181593e02
Validity and reliability of the Ergomopro Powermeter
Kirkland, A., Coleman, D., Wiles, J. and Hopker, J. 2008. Validity and reliability of the Ergomopro Powermeter. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 29 (11), pp. 913-916. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1038621
The relationships between exercise intensity, heart rate, and blood pressure during an incremental isometric exercise test
Wiles, J., Allum, S., Coleman, D. and Swaine, I. 2007. The relationships between exercise intensity, heart rate, and blood pressure during an incremental isometric exercise test. Journal of Sports Sciences. 26 (2), pp. 155-162. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410701370655
A novel method for the performance of isometric exercise in the home
Wiles, J., Coleman, D., Dunford, M. and Swaine, I. 2005. A novel method for the performance of isometric exercise in the home. Journal of Sports Sciences. 23 (8), pp. 795-803. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021658
The effects of caffeine ingestion on performance time, speed and power during a laboratory-based 1 km cycling time-trial
Wiles, J., Coleman, D., Tegerdine, M. and Swaine, I. 2006. The effects of caffeine ingestion on performance time, speed and power during a laboratory-based 1 km cycling time-trial. Journal of Sports Sciences. 24 (11), pp. 1165-1171. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500457687
Differences in efficiency between trained and recreational cyclists
Hopker, J., Coleman, D. and Wiles, J. 2007. Differences in efficiency between trained and recreational cyclists. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 32 (6), pp. 1036-1042. https://doi.org/10.1139/H07-070
Method of lactate elevation does not affect the determination of the lactate minimum
Smith, M., Balmer, J., Coleman, D. and Bird, S. 2002. Method of lactate elevation does not affect the determination of the lactate minimum. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 34 (11), pp. 1744-1749. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200211000-00009
Reliability of sprint test indices in well-trained cyclists
Coleman, D., Wiles, J., Nunn, M. and Smith, M. 2005. Reliability of sprint test indices in well-trained cyclists. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 26 (5), pp. 383-387. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-821226
Power output measurement during treadmill cycling
Coleman, D., Wiles, J., Davison, R., Smith, M. and Swaine, I. 2007. Power output measurement during treadmill cycling. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 28 (6), pp. 525-530. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-955888
Positive and negative placebo effects resulting from the deceptive administration of an ergogenic aid
Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2007. Positive and negative placebo effects resulting from the deceptive administration of an ergogenic aid. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 17 (3), pp. 259-269.
Placebo effects of caffeine on cycling performance
Beedie, C., Stuart, E., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2006. Placebo effects of caffeine on cycling performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 38 (12), pp. 2159-2164. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000233805.56315.a9