The safety of isometric exercise: rethinking the exercise prescription paradigm for those with stage 1 hypertension.
Wiles, J., Taylor, K., Coleman, D., Sharma, R. and O'Driscoll, J. 2018. The safety of isometric exercise: rethinking the exercise prescription paradigm for those with stage 1 hypertension. Medicine. 97 (10). https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000010105
|Authors||Wiles, J., Taylor, K., Coleman, D., Sharma, R. and O'Driscoll, J.|
Few studies have investigated the relative safety of prescribing isometric exercise (IE) to reduce resting blood pressure (BP).
This study aimed to ascertain the safety of the hemodynamic response during an IE wall squat protocol.Twenty-six hypertensive (BP of 120-139 mm Hg systolic and/or 80-90 mm Hg diastolic) males (45 ± 8 years; 1.78 ± 0.07 m; 89.7 ± 12.3 kg; mean ± SD), visited the laboratory on 2 separate occasions. Heart rate (HR) and BP were measured at rest and continuously throughout exercise. In visit 1, participants completed a continuous incremental isometric wall squat exercise test, starting at 135° of knee flexion, decreasing by 10° every 2 minutes until 95° (final stage). Exercise was terminated upon completion of the test or volitional fatigue. The relationship between knee joint angle and mean HR was used to calculate the participant-specific knee joint angle required to elicit a target HR of 95% HRpeak. This angle was used to determine exercise intensity for a wall squat training session consisting of 4 × 2 minute bouts (visit 2).Systolic BPs during the exercise test and training were 173 ± 21 mm Hg and 171 ± 19 mm Hg, respectively, (P > .05) and were positively related (r = 0.73, P < .05) with ratio limits of agreement (LoA) of 0.995 ×/÷ 1.077. Diastolic BPs were 116 ± 14 mm Hg and 113 ± 11 mm Hg, respectively, (P > .05) and were positively related (r = 0.42, P < .05) with ratio LoA of 0.99 ×/÷ 1.107. No participant recorded a systolic BP > 250 mm Hg. Diastolic BP values > 115 mm Hg were recorded in 12 participants during the incremental test and 6 participants during the training session. Peak rate pressure product was 20681 ± 3911 mm Hg bpm during the IE test and was lower (18074 ± 3209 mm Hg bpm) during the IE session (P = .002). No adverse effects were reported.Based on the current ACSM guidelines for aerobic exercise termination, systolic BP does not reach the upper limit during IE in this population. Diastolic BP exceeds 115 mm Hg in some during the IE protocol, which may suggest the need to individualise IE training prescription in some with suboptimal BP control.
Future research is required to ascertain if IE requires modified BP termination guidelines.
|Keywords||Exercise training; incremental test; isometric; squat; static|
|Journal citation||97 (10)|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)||https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000010105|
|01 Mar 2018|
|Publication process dates|
|Deposited||06 Apr 2018|
|Accepted||16 Feb 2018|
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