1 Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2012; 380:2224–2260.
2 Millar PJ, McGowan CL, Cornelissen VA, Araujo CG, Swaine IL. Evidence for the role of isometric exercise training in reducing blood pressure: Potential mechanisms and future directions. Sport. Med. 2014; 44:345–356.
3 Forouzanfar MH, Liu P, Roth GA, Ng M, Biryukov S, Marczak L, et al. Global Burden of Hypertension and Systolic Blood Pressure of at Least 110 to 115 mm Hg, 1990-2015. JAMA 2017; 317:165.
4 WHO | Blood Pressure. WHO 2018.
5 Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJ. Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data. Lancet 2006; 367:1747–1757.
6 Wang G, Grosse SD, Schooley MW. Conducting Research on the Economics of Hypertension to Improve Cardiovascular Health. Am. J. Prev. Med. 2017; 53:S115–S117.
7 Geneva WHO-, WHO S, 2010 undefined. World Health Organization Global recommendations on physical activity for health.
8 Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1·9 million participants. Lancet Glob Heal 2018; 6:e1077–e1086.
9 Clark T, Morey R, Jones MD, Marcos L, Ristov M, Ram A, et al. High-intensity interval training for reducing blood pressure: a randomized trial vs. moderate-intensity continuous training in males with overweight or obesity. Hypertens Res Published Online First: 14 January 2020. doi:10.1038/s41440-019-0392-6
10 Costa EC, Hay JL, Kehler DS, Boreskie KF, Arora RC, Umpierre D, et al. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training On Blood Pressure in Adults with Pre- to Established Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. Sport. Med. 2018; 48:2127–2142.
11 Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Svetkey LP, Moore TJ, Vogt TM, Conlin PR, et al. Comparing office-based and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in clinical trials. J Hum Hypertens 2005; 19:77–82.
12 Eguchi K, Hoshide S, Schwartz JE, Shimada K, Kario K. Visit-to-visit and ambulatory blood pressure variability as predictors of incident cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2012; 25:962–968.
13 de la Sierra A, Gorostidi M, Banegas JR, Segura J, de la Cruz JJ, Ruilope LM. Nocturnal hypertension or nondipping: which is better associated with the cardiovascular risk profile? Am J Hypertens 2014; 27:680–7.
14 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Hypertension in adults: diagnosis and management. NG 136. 2019.
15 Good PI. Resampling methods: A practical guide to data analysis. Birkhauser Boston; 2006. doi:10.1007/0-8176-4444-X
16 Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task F. In: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension.Elsevier; 2018. pp. 579.e1-579.e73.
17 Fagard RH. Dipping pattern of nocturnal blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2009; 7:599–605.
18 O’Brien E, Mee F, Coats A, Owens P, Petrie J, Padfield PL, et al. Use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: Recommendations of the British Hypertension Society. Br Med J 2000; 320:1128–1134.
19 Boardman H, Lewandowski AJ, Lazdam M, Kenworthy Y, Whitworth P, Zwager CL, et al. Aortic stiffness and blood pressure variability in young people: A multimodality investigation of central and peripheral vasculature. J Hypertens 2017; 35:513–522.
20 Beevers DG (D. G, Lip GYH, O’Brien E. ABC of hypertension. BMJ Books/Blackwell; 2007.
21 Paz MA, De-La-Sierra A, Sáez M, Barceló MA, Rodríguez JJ, Castro S, et al. Treatment efficacy of anti-hypertensive drugs in monotherapy or combination: ATOM systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials according to PRISMA statement. Med. (United States). 2016; 95. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000004071
22 Sosner P, Guiraud T, Gremeaux V, Arvisais D, Herpin D, Bosquet L. The ambulatory hypotensive effect of aerobic training: a reappraisal through a meta-analysis of selected moderators. Scand J Med Sci Sport 2017; 27:327–341.
23 Way KL, Sultana RN, Sabag A, Baker MK, Johnson NA. The effect of high Intensity interval training versus moderate intensity continuous training on arterial stiffness and 24 h blood pressure responses: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Sci. Med. Sport. 2019; 22:385–391.
24 Hansen TW, Jeppesen J, Rasmussen S, Ibsen H, Torp-Pedersen C. Ambulatory blood pressure and mortality: a population-based study. Hypertens (Dallas, Tex 1979) 2005; 45:499–504.
25 Hansen TW, Jeppesen J, Rasmussen S, Ibsen H, Torp-Pedersen C. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and risk of cardiovascular disease: A population based study. Am J Hypertens 2006; 19:243–250.
26 Niiranen TJ, Mäki J, Puukka P, Karanko H, Jula AM. Office, home, and ambulatory blood pressures as predictors of cardiovascular risk. Hypertens (Dallas, Tex 1979) 2014; 64:281–6.
27 Molmen-Hansen HE, Stolen T, Tjonna AE, Aamot IL, Ekeberg IS, Tyldum GA, et al. Aerobic interval training reduces blood pressure and improves myocardial function in hypertensive patients. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2012; 19:151–160.
28 Cornelissen VA, Smart NA. Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Am. Heart Assoc. 2013; 2. doi:10.1161/JAHA.112.004473
29 Ramirez-Jimenez M, Morales-Palomo F, Pallares JG, Mora-Rodriguez R, Ortega JF. Ambulatory blood pressure response to a bout of HIIT in metabolic syndrome patients. Eur J Appl Physiol 2017; 117:1403–1411.
30 Sosner P, Gayda M, Dupuy O, Garzon M, Gremeaux V, Lalonge J, et al. Ambulatory blood pressure reduction following 2 weeks of high-intensity interval training on an immersed ergocycle. Arch Cardiovasc Dis Published Online First: 2019. doi:10.1016/j.acvd.2019.07.005
31 Fiorenza M, Gunnarsson TP, Ehlers TS, Bangsbo J. High‐intensity exercise training ameliorates aberrant expression of markers of mitochondrial turnover but not oxidative damage in skeletal muscle of men with essential hypertension. Acta Physiol 2019; 225. doi:10.1111/apha.13208
32 Guimarães G V, Ciolac EG, Carvalho VO, D’Avila VM, Bortolotto LA, Bocchi EA. Effects of continuous vs. interval exercise training on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in treated hypertension. Hypertens Res 2010; 33:627‐632.
33 O’Driscoll JM, Wright SM, Taylor KA, Coleman DA, Sharma R, Wiles JD. Cardiac autonomic and left ventricular mechanics following high intensity interval training: A randomized crossover controlled study. J Appl Physiol 2018; 125:1030–1040.
34 Karaye K, Akintunde A. The significance of rate pressure product in heart failure patients. Int Cardiovasc Forum J 2015; 1:43.
35 Saladini F, Fania C, Mos L, Mazzer A, Casiglia E, Palatini P. Office Pulse Pressure Is a Predictor of Favorable Outcome in Young- to Middle-Aged Subjects with Stage 1 Hypertension. Hypertension 2017; 70:537–542.
36 Mahmud A, Feely J. Spurious systolic hypertension of youth: Fit young men with elastic arteries. Am J Hypertens 2003; 16:229–232.
37 Julius S, Conway J. Hemodynamic studies in patients with borderline blood pressure elevation. Circulation 1968; 38:282–288.
38 Hansen TW, Li Y, Boggia J, Thijs L, Richart T, Staessen JA. Predictive role of the nighttime blood pressure. Hypertens (Dallas, Tex 1979) 2011; 57:3–10.
39 Agarwal R, Light RP. The effect of measuring ambulatory blood pressure on nighttime sleep and daytime activity - Implications for dipping. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5:281–285.
40 Chadachan VM, Ye MT, Tay JC, Subramaniam K, Setia S. Understanding short-term blood-pressure-variability phenotypes: From concept to clinical practice. Int. J. Gen. Med. 2018; 11:241–254.
41 Sander D, Kukla C, Klingelhöfer J, Winbeck K, Conrad B. Relationship between circadian blood pressure patterns and progression of early carotid atherosclerosis: A 3-year follow-up study. Circulation 2000; 102:1536–41.
42 Tatasciore A, Renda G, Zimarino M, Soccio M, Bilo G, Parati G, et al. Awake systolic blood pressure variability correlates with target-organ damage in hypertensive subjects. Hypertension 2007; 50:325–332.
43 Kikuya M, Ohkubo T, Metoki H, Asayama K, Hara A, Obara T, et al. Day-by-day variability of blood pressure and heart rate at home as a novel predictor of prognosis: The Ohasama study. Hypertension 2008; 52:1045–1050.
44 Parati G, Bilo G. Assessment and management of blood-pressure variability Investigation on the prevalence and blood pressure response in miners exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia in Chile View project REVERENT View project. nature.com Published Online First: 2013. doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2013.1
45 Parati G, Ochoa JE, Lombardi C, Bilo G. Assessment and management of blood-pressure variability. Nat. Rev. Cardiol. 2013; 10:143–155.
46 Conway J, Boon N, Davies C, Jones JV, Sleight P. Neural and humoral mechanisms involved in blood pressure variability. J Hypertens 1984; 2:203–208.
47 Ramos JS, Dalleck LC, Tjonna AE, Beetham KS, Coombes JS. The Impact of High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training on Vascular Function: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sport. Med. 2015; 45:679–692.
48 Saladini F, Benetti E, Mos L, Mazzer A, Casiglia E, Palatini P. Regular physical activity is associated with improved small artery distensibility in young to middle-age stage 1 hypertensives. Vasc Med (United Kingdom) 2014; 19:458–464.
49 Bar-Or O. The Wingate Anaerobic Test An Update on Methodology, Reliability and Validity. Sport Med An Int J Appl Med Sci Sport Exerc 1987; 4:381–394.
50 Dotan R, Bar-Or O. Load optimization for the wingate anaerobic test. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1983; 51:409–417.
51 Richmond SR, Whitman SA, Acree LS, Olson BD, Carper MJ, Godard MP. Power output in trained male and female cyclists during the wingate test with increasing flywheel resistance. J Exerc Physiol Online 2011; 14:46–53.