Improved 1000-m running performance and pacing strategy with caffeine and placebo effect: a balanced placebo design study

Journal article


Hurst, P., Schiphof-Godart, l., Hettinga, F., Roelands, B. and Beedie, C. 2019. Improved 1000-m running performance and pacing strategy with caffeine and placebo effect: a balanced placebo design study. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15 (4), pp. 483-488. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0230
AuthorsHurst, P., Schiphof-Godart, l., Hettinga, F., Roelands, B. and Beedie, C.
Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the placebo effect of caffeine on pacing strategy and performance over 1000-m running time-trials using a balanced placebo design.

Methods: Eleven well-trained male middle-distance athletes performed seven 1000-m time-trials (one familiarisation, two baseline and four experimental). Experimental trials consisted of the administration of four treatments: informed caffeine/received caffeine (CC), informed caffeine/received placebo (CP), informed placebo/received caffeine (PC), and informed placebo/received placebo (PP). Treatments were randomized. Split times were recorded at 200-, 400-, 600-, 800- and 1000-m and peak heart rate (HRpeak) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at the completion of the trial.

Results: Relative to baseline, participants ran faster during CC (d = 0.42) and CP (d = 0.43). These changes were associated with an increased pace during the first half of the trial. No differences were shown in pacing or performance between baseline and the PC (d = 0.21) and open administration of placebo (d = 0.10). No differences were reported between treatments for HRpeak (η2 = 0.084) and RPE (η2 = 0.009).

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the effect of believing to have ingested caffeine improved performance to the same magnitude as actually receiving caffeine. These improvements were associated with an increase in pace during the first half of the time-trial.

Year2019
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Journal citation15 (4), pp. 483-488
PublisherHuman Kinetics
ISSN1555-0265
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0230
Publication dates
Online09 Sep 2019
Publication process dates
Deposited20 Aug 2019
AcceptedAug 2019
Accepted author manuscript
Output statusPublished
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Beedie, C., Domone, S., Sandercock, G., Wade, M. and Mann, S. 2016. A method by which to assess the scalability of field-based fitness tests of cardiorespiratory fitness among schoolchildren. Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0553-6
Comparative effects of three 48-week community-based physical activity and exercise interventions on aerobic capacity, total cholesterol and mean arterial blood pressure
Beedie, C., Jimenez, A., Domone, S. and Mann, S. 2016. Comparative effects of three 48-week community-based physical activity and exercise interventions on aerobic capacity, total cholesterol and mean arterial blood pressure. BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine. 2016 (2). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2015-000105
Is Olympic inspiration associated with fitness and physical activity in English schoolchildren? A repeated cross- sectional comparison before and 18 months after London 2012
Beedie, C., Sandercock, G. and Mann, S. 2016. Is Olympic inspiration associated with fitness and physical activity in English schoolchildren? A repeated cross- sectional comparison before and 18 months after London 2012. British Medical Journal Open. 6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011670
Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation over 5 km
Hurst, P., Coleman, D. and Saunders, S. 2015. Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation over 5 km. British Journal of Sports Medicine: International Sports Science + Sports Medicine Conference 2015 Abstracts Newcastle Upon Tyne 8–10th September 2015. 49 (Sup. 2), pp. A6-A6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095576.17
Placebo and nocebo effects during repeat sprint performance
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2016. Placebo and nocebo effects during repeat sprint performance.
Knowledge and experience of placebo effects modifies athletes’ intentions to use sport supplements
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2016. Knowledge and experience of placebo effects modifies athletes’ intentions to use sport supplements.
Validity and reliability of critical power field testing
Karsten, B., Jobson, S., Hopker, J., Stevens, L. and Beedie, C. 2015. Validity and reliability of critical power field testing. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 115 (1), pp. 197-204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-014-3001-z
The BASES expert statement on emotion regulation in sport
Lane, A., Beedie, C., Jones, M., Uphill, M. and Devonport, T. 2012. The BASES expert statement on emotion regulation in sport. Journal of Sports Sciences. 30 (11), pp. 1189-1195. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.693621
The BASES expert statement on emotion regulation in sport: produced on behalf of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences
Lane, A., Beedie, C., Jones, M., Uphill, M. and Devenport, T. 2011. The BASES expert statement on emotion regulation in sport: produced on behalf of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences. The Sport and Exercise Scientist. 29, pp. 14-15.
Placebo effect of an inert gel on experimentally induced leg muscle pain
Hopker, J., Foad, A., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Leach, G. 2010. Placebo effect of an inert gel on experimentally induced leg muscle pain. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine. 1, pp. 215-221.
Mood and performance: test of a conceptual model with a focus on depressed mood
Lane, A., Terry, P., Beedie, C., Curry, D. and Clark, N. 2001. Mood and performance: test of a conceptual model with a focus on depressed mood. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2 (3), pp. 157-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1469-0292(01)00007-3
Caffeine works: whether you believe it or not: evidence for pharmacological effects of caffeine ingestion on 40km cycling performance
Foad, A., Beedie, C. and Coleman, D. 2006. Caffeine works: whether you believe it or not: evidence for pharmacological effects of caffeine ingestion on 40km cycling performance.
Placebo effects of ergogenic aids in sports performance: experimental, psychometric and interview data
Beedie, C., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Uphill, M. 2006. Placebo effects of ergogenic aids in sports performance: experimental, psychometric and interview data.
Is caffeine all in the head? Evidence for the placebo effects attributable to caffeine in cycling performance
Beedie, C., Stuart, E., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2006. Is caffeine all in the head? Evidence for the placebo effects attributable to caffeine in cycling performance.
Preparing students for the real world
Beedie, C. 2005. Preparing students for the real world. Sport and Exercise Scientist. 6.
Possible implications of nervous system-immune system links in sports rehabilitation
Beedie, C. and Hopker, J. 2005. Possible implications of nervous system-immune system links in sports rehabilitation. SportEX Medicine.
Potential for the use of the placebo effect in sport rehabilitation
Beedie, C. and Hopker, J. 2005. Potential for the use of the placebo effect in sport rehabilitation. SportEX Medicine.
Mood matters: a response to Mellalieu
Lane, A., Beedie, C. and Stevens, M. 2005. Mood matters: a response to Mellalieu. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 17 (4), pp. 319-325. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200500313610
Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise
Beedie, C. and Foad, A. 2008. Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise. in: Lane, A. (ed.) Sport and Exercise Psychology London Hodder Education. pp. 211-225
Identification of placebo responsive participants in 40km laboratory cycling performance
Beedie, C., Foad, A. and Coleman, D. 2008. Identification of placebo responsive participants in 40km laboratory cycling performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 7 (1), pp. 166-175.
Pharmacological and psychological effects of caffeine ingestion in 40-km cycling performance
Foad, A., Beedie, C. and Coleman, D. 2008. Pharmacological and psychological effects of caffeine ingestion in 40-km cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 40 (1), pp. 158-165. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e3181593e02
Towards empirical distinctions between emotion and mood: a subjective contextual model
Beedie, C. 2007. Towards empirical distinctions between emotion and mood: a subjective contextual model. in: Lane, A. (ed.) Mood and Human Performance: Conceptual, Measurement and Applied Issues New York Nova Science Publishers. pp. 63-87
Positive and negative placebo effects resulting from the deceptive administration of an ergogenic aid
Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2007. Positive and negative placebo effects resulting from the deceptive administration of an ergogenic aid. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 17 (3), pp. 259-269.
Placebo effects of caffeine on cycling performance
Beedie, C., Stuart, E., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2006. Placebo effects of caffeine on cycling performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 38 (12), pp. 2159-2164. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000233805.56315.a9
Distinctions between emotion and mood
Beedie, C., Terry, P. and Lane, A. 2005. Distinctions between emotion and mood. Cognition & Emotion. 19 (6), pp. 847-878. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930541000057
Placebo effects in competitive sport: qualitative data
Beedie, C. 2007. Placebo effects in competitive sport: qualitative data. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 6 (1), pp. 21-28.
The placebo effect in sports performance: a brief review
Beedie, C. and Foad, A. 2009. The placebo effect in sports performance: a brief review. Sports Medicine. 39 (4), pp. 313-329. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200939040-00004