Are dietary supplements a gateway to doping? A retrospective survey of athletes’ substance use

Journal article


Hurst, P. 2023. Are dietary supplements a gateway to doping? A retrospective survey of athletes’ substance use. Substance Use and Misuse. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2022.2161320
AuthorsHurst, P.
Abstract

Competitive athletes (N=1,081, 42.0% female; Age=29.3±10.8 years) completed an online survey measuring dietary supplement use, doping use, doping subjective norms and age of using a supplement and/or doping substance. Results revealed that dietary supplement users were 11 times more likely to dope than non-users (OR=11.28, 95% CI = 2.72 to 46.77). Age for first use of a dietary supplement was younger than use of a doping substance (mean difference=-4.5±5.1 years old, p<0.001, d=0.90). Over three-quarters of doping users reported using a dietary supplement first (77.1%), whereas a small proportion of athletes started using dietary supplements and doping at the same time (12.5%) and some used doping substances before using dietary supplements (10.4%). Moderation analysis revealed that dietary supplement users may be more likely to dope because of a more favourable social acceptance of using prohibited substances than non-users. Data suggest that dietary supplement use is more likely to precede doping. However, not all doping users begin with using dietary supplements, which highlights the importance of measuring the temporal order of dietary supplement and doping use in future research.

KeywordsClean sport; Drug use and abuse; Nutritional ergogenic aids; Prohibited performance enhancing substances; World Anti-Doping Agency
Year2023
JournalSubstance Use and Misuse
PublisherTaylor & Francis
ISSN1082-6084
1532-2491
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2022.2161320
Publication process dates
Accepted21 Dec 2022
Deposited04 Jan 2023
Accepted author manuscript
File Access Level
Restricted
Output statusIn press
References

Akoglu, H. (2018). User's guide to correlation coefficients. Turkish journal of emergency medicine, 18(3), 91-93.
Al Ghobain, M., Konbaz, M. S., Almassad, A., Alsultan, A., Al Shubaili, M., & AlShabanh, O. (2016). Prevalence, knowledge and attitude of prohibited substances use (doping) among Saudi sport players. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 11, 14. https://www.embase.com/search/results?subaction=viewrecord&id=L6...
Backhouse, S. H., Whitaker, L., & Petroczi, A. (2013). Gateway to doping? Supplement use in the context of preferred competitive situations, doping attitude, beliefs, and norms. The Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 23(2), 244-252. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01374.x
Barkoukis, V., Lazuras, L., Lucidi, F., & Tsorbatzoudis, H. (2015). Nutritional supplement and doping use in sport: Possible underlying social cognitive processes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 25(6), e582-588. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12377
Barkoukis, V., Lazuras, L., Ourda, D., & Tsorbatzoudis, H. (2020). Are nutritional supplements a gateway to doping use in competitive team sports? The roles of achievement goals and motivational regulations. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2019.12.021
Barkoukis, V., Rowe, R., Harris, P. R., & Lazuras, L. (2020). Self-affirmation effects on doping related cognition among exercisers who use nutritional supplements. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 46, 101609.
Buckman, J. F., Farris, S. G., & Yusko, D. A. (2013). A national study of substance use behaviors among NCAA male athletes who use banned performance enhancing substances. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 131(1), 50-55. https://www.embase.com/search/results?subaction=viewrecord&id=L5...
Chan, D. K., Dimmock, J. A., Donovan, R. J., Hardcastle, S., Lentillon-Kaestner, V., & Hagger, M. S. (2015). Self-determined motivation in sport predicts anti-doping motivation and intention: a perspective from the trans-contextual model. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(3), 315-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.04.001
Chan, D. K., Hardcastle, S., Dimmock, J. A., Lentillon-Kaestner, V., Donovan, R. J., Burgin, M., & Hagger, M. S. (2015). Modal salient belief and social cognitive variables of anti-doping behaviors in sport: Examining an extended model of the theory of planned behavior. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 164-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.03.002
Choo, T., Roh, S., & Robinson, M. (2008). Assessing the “gateway hypothesis” among middle and high school students in Tennessee. Journal of Drug Issues, 38(2), 467-492.
Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155-159.
Cooke, R., Dahdah, M., Norman, P., & French, D. P. (2016). How well does the theory of planned behaviour predict alcohol consumption? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review, 10(2), 148-167.
Dietz, P., Ulrich, R., Dalaker, R., Striegel, H., Franke, A. G., Lieb, K., & Simon, P. (2013). Associations between physical and cognitive doping--a cross-sectional study in 2.997 triathletes. PloS One, 8(11), e78702. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078702
Donovan, R., Jalleh, G., & Gucciardi, D. (2015). A research package, including a standard questionnaire, to assist national anti-doping organisations (NADOs)(and other anti-doping stakeholders) measure athletes’ beliefs and behaviours with respect to doping, and to assess the effectiveness of anti-doping programs. World Anti-Doping Agency. https://www.wada-ama.org/en/resources/education-and-prevention/resea...
Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A.-G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G* Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41(4), 1149-1160.
Gallucci, A., Martin, R., Beaujean, A., & Usdan, S. (2015). An examination of the misuse of prescription stimulants among college students using the theory of planned behavior. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 20(2), 217-226.
García-Grimau, E., De la Vega, R., & Casado, A. (2022). Moral Disengagement, Social Norms, and Motivational Profiles Influence Attitudes Toward Doping Among Spanish Athletics Coaches. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 75.
Garthe, I., & Maughan, R. J. (2018). Athletes and supplements: prevalence and perspectives. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28(2), 126-138.
Gignac, G. E., & Szodorai, E. T. (2016). Effect size guidelines for individual differences researchers. Personality and Individual Differences, 102, 74-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.069
Hall, W. D., & Lynskey, M. (2005). Is cannabis a gateway drug? Testing hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs. Drug Alcohol Rev, 24(1), 39-48. https://doi.org/10.1080/09595230500126698
Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford publications.
Heller, S., Ulrich, R., Simon, P., & Dietz, P. (2020). Refined analysis of a cross-sectional doping survey among recreational triathletes: Support for the nutritional supplement gateway hypothesis. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2302.
Hurst, P., Foad, A. J., Coleman, D. A., & Beedie, C. (2017). Development and validation of the Sports Supplements Beliefs Scale Performance Enhancement & Health, 5(3), 89-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peh.2016.10.001
Hurst, P., Ring, C., & Kavussanu, M. (2021a). Athletes using ergogenic and medical sport supplements report more favourable attitudes to doping than non-users. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 24(3), 307-311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.09.012
Hurst, P., Ring, C., & Kavussanu, M. (2021b). Ego orientation is related to doping likelihood via sport supplement use and sport supplement beliefs. European Journal of Sport Science, 1-19.
Hurst, P., Ring, C., & Kavussanu, M. (2022). Moral values and moral identity moderate the indirect relationship between sport supplement use and doping use via sport supplement beliefs. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2022.2053387
Jisc. (2022). Online surveys. Retrieved 19/04/2022 from https://www.onlinesurveys.ac.uk/
Kandel, D. (1975). Stages in adolescent involvement in drug use. Science, 190(4217), 912-914.
Kandel, D., & Kandel, E. (2015). The Gateway Hypothesis of substance abuse: developmental, biological and societal perspectives. Acta Paediatrica, 104(2), 130-137. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.12851
Kandel, D. B. (2002). Stages and pathways of drug involvement: Examining the gateway hypothesis. Cambridge University Press.
Karazsia, B. T., Crowther, J. H., & Galioto, R. (2013). Undergraduate men's use of performance- and appearance-enhancing substances: An examination of the gateway hypothesis. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 14(2), 129-137. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027810
Lazuras, L., Barkoukis, V., Mallia, L., Lucidi, F., & Brand, R. (2017). More than a feeling: The role of anticipated regret in predicting doping intentions in adolescent athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 30, 196-204. https://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PA...
Maughan, R. J., Burke, L. M., Dvorak, J., Larson-Meyer, D. E., Peeling, P., Phillips, S. M., . . . Geyer, H. (2018). IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28(2), 104-125. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0020
Mettler, S., Lehner, G., & Morgan, G. (2021). Widespread Supplement Intake and Use of Poor Quality Information in Elite Adolescent Swiss Athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 1(aop), 1-8.
Ntoumanis, N., Ng, J. Y., Barkoukis, V., & Backhouse, S. (2014). Personal and psychosocial predictors of doping use in physical activity settings: a meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 44(11), 1603-1624. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0240-4
WADA. (2022). Code Signatories. Retrieved 12/04/2022 from https://www.wada-ama.org/en/what-we-do/the-code/code-signatories

Permalink -

https://repository.canterbury.ac.uk/item/93701/are-dietary-supplements-a-gateway-to-doping-a-retrospective-survey-of-athletes-substance-use

  • 17
    total views
  • 0
    total downloads
  • 17
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

The role of moral identity and regret on cheating in sport
Hurst, P., Kavussanu, M., Swain, J. and Ring, C. The role of moral identity and regret on cheating in sport. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2022.2057567
Moral values and moral identity moderate the indirect relationship between sport supplement use and doping use via sport supplement beliefs
Hurst, P., Ring, Christopher and Kavussanu, Maria 2022. Moral values and moral identity moderate the indirect relationship between sport supplement use and doping use via sport supplement beliefs. Journal of Sports Sciences. 40 (10), pp. 1160-1167. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2022.2053387
Efficacy of sodium bicarbonate ingestion strategies for protecting blinding
Gurton, W., Garcia Matta, G., Gough, L. and Hurst, P. 2022. Efficacy of sodium bicarbonate ingestion strategies for protecting blinding. European Journal of Applied Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-022-05031-0
The reproducibility of 20-min time-trial performance on a virtual cycling platform.
Matta, G., Edwards, Andrew, Roelands, Bart, Hettinga, F. and Hurst, P. 2022. The reproducibility of 20-min time-trial performance on a virtual cycling platform. International Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1848-8478
Blood pressure and cardiac autonomic adaptations to isometric exercise training: A randomized sham-controlled study
De Caux, A., Edwards, J., Swift, H., Hurst, P., Wiles, J. and O'Driscoll, J. 2022. Blood pressure and cardiac autonomic adaptations to isometric exercise training: A randomized sham-controlled study. Physiological Reports. 10 (2), p. e15112.
Ego orientation is related to doping likelihood via sport supplement use and sport supplement beliefs
Hurst, P., Ring, Christopher and Kavussanu, Maria 2021. Ego orientation is related to doping likelihood via sport supplement use and sport supplement beliefs. European Journal of Sport Science. 22 (11), pp. 1734-1742. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2021.1995509
Targeting personal morality in anti-doping education
Hurst, P. 2021. Targeting personal morality in anti-doping education . HED Matters. 4 (1), pp. 9-12.
A psychological intervention reduces doping likelihood in British and Greek athletes: A cluster randomized controlled trial
Maria Kavussanu, Vassilis Barkoukis, Phil Hurst, Mariya Yukhymenko-Lescroart, Lida Skoufa, Andrea Chirico, Fabio Lucidi and Christopher Ring 2021. A psychological intervention reduces doping likelihood in British and Greek athletes: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. https://doi.org//10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.102099
Prefrontal cortex oxygenation during endurance performance: A systematic review of functional near-infrared spectroscopy studies.
De Wachter, Jonas, Proost, Matthias, Habay, Jelle, Verstraelen, Matthias, Díaz-García, Jesús, Hurst, Philip, Meeusen, Romain, Van Cutsem, Jeroen and Roelands, B. 2021. Prefrontal cortex oxygenation during endurance performance: A systematic review of functional near-infrared spectroscopy studies. Frontiers in Physiology. 12, p. 761232. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.761232
A moral intervention reduces doping likelihood in British and Greek athletes: evidence from a cluster randomized control trial
Kavussanu, M. and Hurst, P. 2020. A moral intervention reduces doping likelihood in British and Greek athletes: evidence from a cluster randomized control trial. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2019-0313
Athletes using ergogenic and medical sport supplements report more favourable attitudes to doping than non-users
Hurst, P., Ring, C. and Kavussanu, M. 2020. Athletes using ergogenic and medical sport supplements report more favourable attitudes to doping than non-users. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.09.012
The placebo effect in sport: How practitioners can inject words to improve performance
Roelands, B. and Hurst, P. 2020. The placebo effect in sport: How practitioners can inject words to improve performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15 (6), pp. 765-766. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0358
Can taste be ergogenic?
Best, R., McDonald, K., Hurst, P. and Pickering, C. 2020. Can taste be ergogenic? European Journal of Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02274-5
Dual career: balancing success in sport and life
Howland, L., Papadimitriou, A., Minoudis, V. and Hurst, P. 2020. Dual career: balancing success in sport and life. in: Chatziefstathiou, D., Garcia, B. and Seguin, B. (ed.) Routledge Handbook of the Olympic and Paralympic Games Routledge. pp. 1-21
No differences between beetroot juice and placebo on competitive 5-km running performance: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Hurst, P., Saunders, S. and Coleman, D. 2020. No differences between beetroot juice and placebo on competitive 5-km running performance: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 30 (4), pp. 295-300. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2020-0034
Who responds to a placebo? Factors associated with response to placebo during a double-blind randomised controlled trial
Hurst, P., Saunders, S. and Coleman, D. 2020. Who responds to a placebo? Factors associated with response to placebo during a double-blind randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Sport Science.
Emailed - Are Nike's Vaporfly trainers the emperor's new shoes?
Hurst, P. 2020. Emailed - Are Nike's Vaporfly trainers the emperor's new shoes? CCCU Expert Comment.
An evaluation of UK Athletics’ Clean Sport Programme in preventing doping in junior elite athletes
Hurst, P., Ring, C and Kavussanu, M. 2020. An evaluation of UK Athletics’ Clean Sport Programme in preventing doping in junior elite athletes. Performance Enhancement & Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peh.2019.100155
An educational placebo effect intervention reduces the likelihood of athletes using performance enhancing drugs
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2018. An educational placebo effect intervention reduces the likelihood of athletes using performance enhancing drugs.
Psychological mechanisms underlying morality in sport
Hurst, P. 2019. Psychological mechanisms underlying morality in sport.
Fear of failure predicts doping likelihood in competitive athletes
Hurst, P. 2018. Fear of failure predicts doping likelihood in competitive athletes.
Sport supplement use predicts doping attitudes and likelihood via sport supplement beliefs
Hurst, P., Kavussanu, M., Boardley, I. and Ring, C. 2019. Sport supplement use predicts doping attitudes and likelihood via sport supplement beliefs. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1589920
Improved 1000-m running performance and pacing strategy with caffeine and placebo effect: a balanced placebo design study
Hurst, P., Schiphof-Godart, l., Hettinga, F., Roelands, B. and Beedie, C. 2019. Improved 1000-m running performance and pacing strategy with caffeine and placebo effect: a balanced placebo design study. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15 (4), pp. 483-488. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0230
The placebo and nocebo effect on sports performance: a systematic review
Hurst, P., Schiphof-Godart, l., Szabo, A., Raglin, J., Hettinga, F., Roelands, B., Lane, A., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2019. The placebo and nocebo effect on sports performance: a systematic review. European Journal of Sport Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2019.1655098
Notes and tips on surveys
Hurst, P. and Bird, S. 2019. Notes and tips on surveys. in: Bird, S. (ed.) Research Methods in Physical Activity and Health London and New York Routledge. pp. 102-108
Questionnaires
Hurst, P. and Bird, S. 2019. Questionnaires. in: Bird, S. (ed.) Research Methods in Physical Activity and Health London and New York Routledge. pp. 93-101
Evaluating the effectiveness of the VIRTUES and HEROES projects: qualitative evidence
Kavussanu, M., King, A., Hurst, P., Skloufa, L. and Barkoukis, V. 2018. Evaluating the effectiveness of the VIRTUES and HEROES projects: qualitative evidence.
Preventing doping in sport: the HEROES project
Kavussanu, M., Hurst, P., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Elbe, A. and Ring, C. 2018. Preventing doping in sport: the HEROES project.
Preventing doping in sport: the VIRTUES project
Kavussanu, M., Hurst, P., Barkoukis, V., Skoufa, L., King, A. and Ring, C. 2018. Preventing doping in sport: the VIRTUES project.
The effects of moral disengagement on doping likelihood and guilt
Kavussanu, M., Ring, C. and Hurst, P. 2018. The effects of moral disengagement on doping likelihood and guilt.
Social cognitive predictors of doping intentions: a multi-national study
Kavussanu, M., Skoufa, L., Barkoukis, V., Hurst, P., Chirico, A., Lucidi, F. and Ring, C. 2018. Social cognitive predictors of doping intentions: a multi-national study.
Effects of personal and situational factors on self-referenced doping likelihood
Ring, C., Kavussanu, M., Lucidi, S. and Hurst, P. 2018. Effects of personal and situational factors on self-referenced doping likelihood. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.11.003
The effects of moral disengagement mechanisms on doping likelihood are mediated by guilt and moderated by moral traits
Ring, C. and Hurst, P. 2018. The effects of moral disengagement mechanisms on doping likelihood are mediated by guilt and moderated by moral traits. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 40, pp. 33-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.09.001
The placebo and nocebo effect in sport: intentions, attitudes and beliefs towards sport supplements and banned performance enhancing substances
Hurst, P. 2018. The placebo and nocebo effect in sport: intentions, attitudes and beliefs towards sport supplements and banned performance enhancing substances. PhD Thesis Canterbury Christ Church University Faculty of Social and Applied Sciences
Consensus statement on placebo effects in sports and exercise: the need for conceptual clarity, methodological rigour, and the elucidation of neurobiological mechanisms.
Beedie, C., Hurst, P., Coleman, D., Foad, A., Benedetti, F., Cohen, E., Davis, A., Elseworth-Edelsten, C., Flowers, E., Roelands, B., Hettinga, F., Raglin, J., Szabo, A., Camerone, E., Barbiani, D., Lane, A., Lindheimer, J., Schiphof-Godart, l. and Harvey, S. 2018. Consensus statement on placebo effects in sports and exercise: the need for conceptual clarity, methodological rigour, and the elucidation of neurobiological mechanisms. European Journal of Sport Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2018.1496144
Could placebos be putting lives at risk?
Hurst, P. and Beedie, C. 2018. Could placebos be putting lives at risk?
Caution, this treatment is a placebo. It might work, but it might not”: why emerging mechanistic evidence for placebo effects does not legitimise complementary and alternative medicines in sport
Beedie, C., Whyte, G., Coleman, D., Hurst, P., Cohen, E., Lane, A., Raglin, J. and Foad, A. 2017. Caution, this treatment is a placebo. It might work, but it might not”: why emerging mechanistic evidence for placebo effects does not legitimise complementary and alternative medicines in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-097747
Is there a role for implicit and explicit information about placebo and nocebo effects in reducing the use of drugs in sport?
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2017. Is there a role for implicit and explicit information about placebo and nocebo effects in reducing the use of drugs in sport?
Is the intention to use sport supplements a predictor of placebo and nocebo responding among athletes?
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2017. Is the intention to use sport supplements a predictor of placebo and nocebo responding among athletes?
Athletes intending to use sports supplements are more likely to respond to a placebo
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2017. Athletes intending to use sports supplements are more likely to respond to a placebo. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (MSSE). https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001297
Development and validation of the sports supplements beliefs scale [Conference paper abstract]
Hurst, P., Foad, A. and Coleman, D. 2015. Development and validation of the sports supplements beliefs scale [Conference paper abstract]. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33 (Sup1), pp. s72-s74. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110330
Expectations, caffeine and pacing strategy: how positive and negative expectations can influence running performance
Hurst, P. 2014. Expectations, caffeine and pacing strategy: how positive and negative expectations can influence running performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 48 (A3). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-094245.8
Expectancy effects on competitive 5 km time-trial performance
Hurst, P. 2013. Expectancy effects on competitive 5 km time-trial performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47 (17). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093073.15
Reproducibility of outdoor 5 km running time-trial in a competitive environment
Hurst, P. 2013. Reproducibility of outdoor 5 km running time-trial in a competitive environment. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47 (e4). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093073.14
Development and validation of the Sports Supplements Beliefs Scale
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2016. Development and validation of the Sports Supplements Beliefs Scale. Performance Enhancement & Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peh.2016.10.001
Reliability of 5-km running performance in a competitive environment
Hurst, P. and Board, L. 2016. Reliability of 5-km running performance in a competitive environment. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367X.2016.1233421
Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise
Hurst, P., Foad, A. and Beedie, C. 2016. Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise. in: Lane, A. (ed.) Sport and Exercise Psychology London Routledge. pp. 325-344
Capitalizing on the placebo component of treatments
Beedie, C., Foad, A. and Hurst, P. 2015. Capitalizing on the placebo component of treatments. Current Sports Medicine Reports (CSMR). 14 (4), pp. 284-287. https://doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0000000000000172
Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation over 5 km
Hurst, P., Coleman, D. and Saunders, S. 2015. Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation over 5 km. British Journal of Sports Medicine: International Sports Science + Sports Medicine Conference 2015 Abstracts Newcastle Upon Tyne 8–10th September 2015. 49 (Sup. 2), pp. A6-A6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095576.17
Placebo and nocebo effects during repeat sprint performance
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2016. Placebo and nocebo effects during repeat sprint performance.
Knowledge and experience of placebo effects modifies athletes’ intentions to use sport supplements
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2016. Knowledge and experience of placebo effects modifies athletes’ intentions to use sport supplements.