The placebo and nocebo effect in sport: intentions, attitudes and beliefs towards sport supplements and banned performance enhancing substances

PhD Thesis


Hurst, P. 2018. The placebo and nocebo effect in sport: intentions, attitudes and beliefs towards sport supplements and banned performance enhancing substances. PhD Thesis Canterbury Christ Church University Faculty of Social and Applied Sciences
AuthorsHurst, P.
TypePhD Thesis
Qualification namePhD
Abstract

The focus of this research is to determine the magnitude and moderators of placebo and nocebo effects on sport performance and to explore the impact of a placebo intervention on athletes’ beliefs and intentions towards sport supplements. Recent research suggests that supplement users may be more likely to use banned substances (i.e. doping) and that beliefs and intentions towards supplements may influence future supplement use. As such, this research also explores the effects of a placebo intervention on athletes’ attitudes to doping.

Study 1 focuses on the development and validation of the Sports Supplements Beliefs Scale. This measure is used to assess athletes’ beliefs about sport supplements and the impact of the placebo intervention conducted in Study 2 on these beliefs.

Study 2 uses a placebo intervention to examine the magnitude and moderators of the placebo and nocebo effect on repeat sprint performance, and Study 3 examines the impact of this intervention on participants’ beliefs and intentions to use sport supplements and attitudes to doping. In Study 2, no significant mean placebo effect on sport performance was evident, however, a significant mean nocebo effect compared to no treatment controls was observed. Further analyses indicated that participants’ intentions to use sport supplements influenced the direction and magnitude of the placebo effect.

Study 3 showed that participants’ beliefs and intentions towards sport supplements and attitudes to doping changed after the intervention. Although it appeared to reduce the likelihood of athletes using sport supplements and banned substances overall, participants that were not intending to use sport supplements before the intervention were more likely to use them after.

In conclusion, data from this research suggest that an athlete’s intention to use sport supplements moderates the direction and magnitude of placebo effects on sport performance and that a placebo intervention significantly influences athletes’ beliefs and intentions towards sport supplements and attitudes to doping. These results have important implications for how international and national anti-doping organisations develop their anti-doping education interventions. Interventions aimed at educating athletes about the placebo effect and targeting their use of sport supplements, may prevent future doping behaviours.

Year2018
Supplemental file
File Access Level
Restricted
Publication process dates
Deposited17 May 2019
Accepted2018
Output statusUnpublished
Accepted author manuscript
Permalink -

https://repository.canterbury.ac.uk/item/88zqx/the-placebo-and-nocebo-effect-in-sport-intentions-attitudes-and-beliefs-towards-sport-supplements-and-banned-performance-enhancing-substances

Download files

Accepted author manuscript
  • 32
    total views
  • 16
    total downloads
  • 1
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

The placebo effect in sport: How practitioners can inject words to improve performance
Roelands, B. and Hurst, P. 2020. The placebo effect in sport: How practitioners can inject words to improve performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15 (6), pp. 765-766. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0358
Can taste be ergogenic?
Best, R., McDonald, K., Hurst, P. and Pickering, C. 2020. Can taste be ergogenic? European Journal of Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02274-5
Dual career: balancing success in sport and life
Howland, L., Papadimitriou, A., Minoudis, V. and Hurst, P. 2020. Dual career: balancing success in sport and life. in: Chatziefstathiou, D., Garcia, B. and Seguin, B. (ed.) Routledge Handbook of the Olympic and Paralympic Games Routledge. pp. 1-21
No differences between beetroot juice and placebo on competitive 5-km running performance: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Hurst, P. and Coleman, D. 2020. No differences between beetroot juice and placebo on competitive 5-km running performance: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism.
Who responds to a placebo? Factors associated with response to placebo during a double-blind randomised controlled trial
Hurst, P., Saunders, S. and Coleman, D. 2020. Who responds to a placebo? Factors associated with response to placebo during a double-blind randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Sport Science.
Emailed - Are Nike's Vaporfly trainers the emperor's new shoes?
Hurst, P. 2020. Emailed - Are Nike's Vaporfly trainers the emperor's new shoes? CCCU Expert Comment.
An evaluation of UK Athletics’ Clean Sport Programme in preventing doping in junior elite athletes
Hurst, P., Ring, C and Kavussanu, M. 2020. An evaluation of UK Athletics’ Clean Sport Programme in preventing doping in junior elite athletes. Performance Enhancement & Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peh.2019.100155
Improved 1000-m running performance and pacing strategy with caffeine and placebo effect: a balanced placebo design study
Hurst, P., Schiphof-Godart, l., Hettinga, F., Roelands, B. and Beedie, C. Improved 1000-m running performance and pacing strategy with caffeine and placebo effect: a balanced placebo design study. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance.
An educational placebo effect intervention reduces the likelihood of athletes using performance enhancing drugs
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2018. An educational placebo effect intervention reduces the likelihood of athletes using performance enhancing drugs.
Psychological mechanisms underlying morality in sport
Hurst, P. 2019. Psychological mechanisms underlying morality in sport.
Fear of failure predicts doping likelihood in competitive athletes
Hurst, P. 2018. Fear of failure predicts doping likelihood in competitive athletes.
Sport supplement use predicts doping attitudes and likelihood via sport supplement beliefs
Hurst, P., Kavussanu, M., Boardley, I. and Ring, C. 2019. Sport supplement use predicts doping attitudes and likelihood via sport supplement beliefs. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1589920
The placebo and nocebo effect on sports performance: a systematic review
Hurst, P., Schiphof-Godart, l., Szabo, A., Raglin, J., Hettinga, F., Roelands, B., Lane, A., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2019. The placebo and nocebo effect on sports performance: a systematic review. European Journal of Sport Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2019.1655098
Notes and tips on surveys
Hurst, P. and Bird, S. 2019. Notes and tips on surveys. in: Bird, S. (ed.) Research Methods in Physical Activity and Health London and New York Routledge. pp. 102-108
Questionnaires
Hurst, P. and Bird, S. 2019. Questionnaires. in: Bird, S. (ed.) Research Methods in Physical Activity and Health London and New York Routledge. pp. 93-101
Evaluating the effectiveness of the VIRTUES and HEROES projects: qualitative evidence
Kavussanu, M., King, A., Hurst, P., Skloufa, L. and Barkoukis, V. 2018. Evaluating the effectiveness of the VIRTUES and HEROES projects: qualitative evidence.
Preventing doping in sport: the HEROES project
Kavussanu, M., Hurst, P., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Elbe, A. and Ring, C. 2018. Preventing doping in sport: the HEROES project.
Preventing doping in sport: the VIRTUES project
Kavussanu, M., Hurst, P., Barkoukis, V., Skoufa, L., King, A. and Ring, C. 2018. Preventing doping in sport: the VIRTUES project.
The effects of moral disengagement on doping likelihood and guilt
Kavussanu, M., Ring, C. and Hurst, P. 2018. The effects of moral disengagement on doping likelihood and guilt.
Social cognitive predictors of doping intentions: a multi-national study
Kavussanu, M., Skoufa, L., Barkoukis, V., Hurst, P., Chirico, A., Lucidi, F. and Ring, C. 2018. Social cognitive predictors of doping intentions: a multi-national study.
Effects of personal and situational factors on self-referenced doping likelihood
Ring, C., Kavussanu, M., Lucidi, S. and Hurst, P. 2018. Effects of personal and situational factors on self-referenced doping likelihood. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.11.003
The effects of moral disengagement mechanisms on doping likelihood are mediated by guilt and moderated by moral traits
Ring, C. and Hurst, P. 2018. The effects of moral disengagement mechanisms on doping likelihood are mediated by guilt and moderated by moral traits. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 40, pp. 33-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.09.001
Could placebos be putting lives at risk?
Hurst, P. and Beedie, C. 2018. Could placebos be putting lives at risk? CCCU Expert Comment.
Consensus statement on placebo effects in sports and exercise: the need for conceptual clarity, methodological rigour, and the elucidation of neurobiological mechanisms.
Beedie, C., Hurst, P., Coleman, D., Foad, A., Benedetti, F., Cohen, E., Davis, A., Elseworth-Edelsten, C., Flowers, E., Roelands, B., Hettinga, F., Raglin, J., Szabo, A., Camerone, E., Barbiani, D., Lane, A., Lindheimer, J., Schiphof-Godart, l. and Harvey, S. 2018. Consensus statement on placebo effects in sports and exercise: the need for conceptual clarity, methodological rigour, and the elucidation of neurobiological mechanisms. European Journal of Sport Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2018.1496144
Caution, this treatment is a placebo. It might work, but it might not”: why emerging mechanistic evidence for placebo effects does not legitimise complementary and alternative medicines in sport
Beedie, C., Whyte, G., Coleman, D., Hurst, P., Cohen, E., Lane, A., Raglin, J. and Foad, A. 2017. Caution, this treatment is a placebo. It might work, but it might not”: why emerging mechanistic evidence for placebo effects does not legitimise complementary and alternative medicines in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-097747
Is there a role for implicit and explicit information about placebo and nocebo effects in reducing the use of drugs in sport?
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2017. Is there a role for implicit and explicit information about placebo and nocebo effects in reducing the use of drugs in sport?
Is the intention to use sport supplements a predictor of placebo and nocebo responding among athletes?
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2017. Is the intention to use sport supplements a predictor of placebo and nocebo responding among athletes?
Athletes intending to use sports supplements are more likely to respond to a placebo
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2017. Athletes intending to use sports supplements are more likely to respond to a placebo. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (MSSE). https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001297
Development and validation of the sports supplements beliefs scale [Conference paper abstract]
Hurst, P., Foad, A. and Coleman, D. 2015. Development and validation of the sports supplements beliefs scale [Conference paper abstract]. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33 (Sup1), pp. s72-s74. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110330
Expectations, caffeine and pacing strategy: how positive and negative expectations can influence running performance
Hurst, P. 2014. Expectations, caffeine and pacing strategy: how positive and negative expectations can influence running performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 48 (A3). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-094245.8
Expectancy effects on competitive 5 km time-trial performance
Hurst, P. 2013. Expectancy effects on competitive 5 km time-trial performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47 (17). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093073.15
Reproducibility of outdoor 5 km running time-trial in a competitive environment
Hurst, P. 2013. Reproducibility of outdoor 5 km running time-trial in a competitive environment. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47 (e4). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093073.14
Development and validation of the Sports Supplements Beliefs Scale
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2016. Development and validation of the Sports Supplements Beliefs Scale. Performance Enhancement & Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peh.2016.10.001
Reliability of 5-km running performance in a competitive environment
Hurst, P. and Board, L. 2016. Reliability of 5-km running performance in a competitive environment. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367X.2016.1233421
Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise
Hurst, P., Foad, A. and Beedie, C. 2016. Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise. in: Lane, A. (ed.) Sport and Exercise Psychology London Routledge. pp. 325-344
Capitalizing on the placebo component of treatments
Beedie, C., Foad, A. and Hurst, P. 2015. Capitalizing on the placebo component of treatments. Current Sports Medicine Reports (CSMR). 14 (4), pp. 284-287. https://doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0000000000000172
Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation over 5 km
Hurst, P., Coleman, D. and Saunders, S. 2015. Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation over 5 km. British Journal of Sports Medicine: International Sports Science + Sports Medicine Conference 2015 Abstracts Newcastle Upon Tyne 8–10th September 2015. 49 (Sup. 2), pp. A6-A6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095576.17
Placebo and nocebo effects during repeat sprint performance
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2016. Placebo and nocebo effects during repeat sprint performance.
Knowledge and experience of placebo effects modifies athletes’ intentions to use sport supplements
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2016. Knowledge and experience of placebo effects modifies athletes’ intentions to use sport supplements.