Can taste be ergogenic?

Journal article


Best, R., McDonald, K., Hurst, P. and Pickering, C. 2020. Can taste be ergogenic? European Journal of Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02274-5
AuthorsBest, R., McDonald, K., Hurst, P. and Pickering, C.
Abstract

Taste is a homeostatic function that conveys valuable information, such as energy density, readiness to eat, or toxicity of foodstuffs. Taste is not limited to the oral cavity but affects multiple physiological systems. In this review, we outline the ergogenic potential of substances that impart bitter, sweet, hot and cold tastes administered prior to and during exercise performance and whether the ergogenic benefits of taste are attributable to the placebo effect.

Carbohydrate mouth rinsing seemingly improves endurance performance, along with a potentially ergogenic effect of oral exposure to both bitter tastants and caffeine although subsequent ingestion of bitter mouth rinses is likely required to enhance performance. Hot and cold tastes may prove beneficial in circumstances where athletes’ thermal state may be challenged. Efficacy is not limited to taste, but extends to the stimulation of targeted receptors in the oral cavity and throughout the digestive tract, relaying signals pertaining to energy availability and temperature to appropriate neural centres. Dose, frequency and timing of tastant application likely require personalisation to be most effective, and can be enhanced or confounded by factors that relate to the placebo effect, highlighting taste as a critical factor in designing and administering applied
sports science interventions.

KeywordsTaste; Carbohydrate; Caffeine; Menthol; Capsaicin; Bitter
Year2020
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
PublisherSpringer
ISSN1436-6207
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02274-5
Official URLhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02274-5
Publication dates
Online16 May 2020
Publication process dates
Accepted06 May 2020
Deposited21 May 2020
Accepted author manuscript
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Permalink -

https://repository.canterbury.ac.uk/item/8v46z/can-taste-be-ergogenic

Restricted files

Accepted author manuscript

  • 27
    total views
  • 1
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

The development and evaluation of a moral intervention aimed to prevent doping in sport: A cluster randomized control trial
Kavussanu, M. and Hurst, P. 2020. The development and evaluation of a moral intervention aimed to prevent doping in sport: A cluster randomized control trial. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology.
Athletes using ergogenic and medical sport supplements report more favourable attitudes to doping than non-users
Hurst, P., Ring, C. and Kavussanu, M. 2020. Athletes using ergogenic and medical sport supplements report more favourable attitudes to doping than non-users. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.09.012
The placebo effect in sport: How practitioners can inject words to improve performance
Roelands, B. and Hurst, P. 2020. The placebo effect in sport: How practitioners can inject words to improve performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15 (6), pp. 765-766. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0358
Dual career: balancing success in sport and life
Howland, L., Papadimitriou, A., Minoudis, V. and Hurst, P. 2020. Dual career: balancing success in sport and life. in: Chatziefstathiou, D., Garcia, B. and Seguin, B. (ed.) Routledge Handbook of the Olympic and Paralympic Games Routledge. pp. 1-21
No differences between beetroot juice and placebo on competitive 5-km running performance: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Hurst, P. and Coleman, D. 2020. No differences between beetroot juice and placebo on competitive 5-km running performance: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism.
Who responds to a placebo? Factors associated with response to placebo during a double-blind randomised controlled trial
Hurst, P., Saunders, S. and Coleman, D. 2020. Who responds to a placebo? Factors associated with response to placebo during a double-blind randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Sport Science.
Emailed - Are Nike's Vaporfly trainers the emperor's new shoes?
Hurst, P. 2020. Emailed - Are Nike's Vaporfly trainers the emperor's new shoes? CCCU Expert Comment.
An evaluation of UK Athletics’ Clean Sport Programme in preventing doping in junior elite athletes
Hurst, P., Ring, C and Kavussanu, M. 2020. An evaluation of UK Athletics’ Clean Sport Programme in preventing doping in junior elite athletes. Performance Enhancement & Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peh.2019.100155
An educational placebo effect intervention reduces the likelihood of athletes using performance enhancing drugs
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2018. An educational placebo effect intervention reduces the likelihood of athletes using performance enhancing drugs.
Psychological mechanisms underlying morality in sport
Hurst, P. 2019. Psychological mechanisms underlying morality in sport.
Fear of failure predicts doping likelihood in competitive athletes
Hurst, P. 2018. Fear of failure predicts doping likelihood in competitive athletes.
Sport supplement use predicts doping attitudes and likelihood via sport supplement beliefs
Hurst, P., Kavussanu, M., Boardley, I. and Ring, C. 2019. Sport supplement use predicts doping attitudes and likelihood via sport supplement beliefs. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1589920
Improved 1000-m running performance and pacing strategy with caffeine and placebo effect: a balanced placebo design study
Hurst, P., Schiphof-Godart, l., Hettinga, F., Roelands, B. and Beedie, C. 2019. Improved 1000-m running performance and pacing strategy with caffeine and placebo effect: a balanced placebo design study. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15 (4), pp. 483-488. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0230
The placebo and nocebo effect on sports performance: a systematic review
Hurst, P., Schiphof-Godart, l., Szabo, A., Raglin, J., Hettinga, F., Roelands, B., Lane, A., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2019. The placebo and nocebo effect on sports performance: a systematic review. European Journal of Sport Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2019.1655098
Notes and tips on surveys
Hurst, P. and Bird, S. 2019. Notes and tips on surveys. in: Bird, S. (ed.) Research Methods in Physical Activity and Health London and New York Routledge. pp. 102-108
Questionnaires
Hurst, P. and Bird, S. 2019. Questionnaires. in: Bird, S. (ed.) Research Methods in Physical Activity and Health London and New York Routledge. pp. 93-101
Evaluating the effectiveness of the VIRTUES and HEROES projects: qualitative evidence
Kavussanu, M., King, A., Hurst, P., Skloufa, L. and Barkoukis, V. 2018. Evaluating the effectiveness of the VIRTUES and HEROES projects: qualitative evidence.
Preventing doping in sport: the HEROES project
Kavussanu, M., Hurst, P., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Elbe, A. and Ring, C. 2018. Preventing doping in sport: the HEROES project.
Preventing doping in sport: the VIRTUES project
Kavussanu, M., Hurst, P., Barkoukis, V., Skoufa, L., King, A. and Ring, C. 2018. Preventing doping in sport: the VIRTUES project.
The effects of moral disengagement on doping likelihood and guilt
Kavussanu, M., Ring, C. and Hurst, P. 2018. The effects of moral disengagement on doping likelihood and guilt.
Social cognitive predictors of doping intentions: a multi-national study
Kavussanu, M., Skoufa, L., Barkoukis, V., Hurst, P., Chirico, A., Lucidi, F. and Ring, C. 2018. Social cognitive predictors of doping intentions: a multi-national study.
Effects of personal and situational factors on self-referenced doping likelihood
Ring, C., Kavussanu, M., Lucidi, S. and Hurst, P. 2018. Effects of personal and situational factors on self-referenced doping likelihood. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.11.003
The effects of moral disengagement mechanisms on doping likelihood are mediated by guilt and moderated by moral traits
Ring, C. and Hurst, P. 2018. The effects of moral disengagement mechanisms on doping likelihood are mediated by guilt and moderated by moral traits. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 40, pp. 33-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.09.001
Could placebos be putting lives at risk?
Hurst, P. and Beedie, C. 2018. Could placebos be putting lives at risk? CCCU Expert Comment.
The placebo and nocebo effect in sport: intentions, attitudes and beliefs towards sport supplements and banned performance enhancing substances
Hurst, P. 2018. The placebo and nocebo effect in sport: intentions, attitudes and beliefs towards sport supplements and banned performance enhancing substances. PhD Thesis Canterbury Christ Church University Faculty of Social and Applied Sciences
Consensus statement on placebo effects in sports and exercise: the need for conceptual clarity, methodological rigour, and the elucidation of neurobiological mechanisms.
Beedie, C., Hurst, P., Coleman, D., Foad, A., Benedetti, F., Cohen, E., Davis, A., Elseworth-Edelsten, C., Flowers, E., Roelands, B., Hettinga, F., Raglin, J., Szabo, A., Camerone, E., Barbiani, D., Lane, A., Lindheimer, J., Schiphof-Godart, l. and Harvey, S. 2018. Consensus statement on placebo effects in sports and exercise: the need for conceptual clarity, methodological rigour, and the elucidation of neurobiological mechanisms. European Journal of Sport Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2018.1496144
Caution, this treatment is a placebo. It might work, but it might not”: why emerging mechanistic evidence for placebo effects does not legitimise complementary and alternative medicines in sport
Beedie, C., Whyte, G., Coleman, D., Hurst, P., Cohen, E., Lane, A., Raglin, J. and Foad, A. 2017. Caution, this treatment is a placebo. It might work, but it might not”: why emerging mechanistic evidence for placebo effects does not legitimise complementary and alternative medicines in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-097747
Is there a role for implicit and explicit information about placebo and nocebo effects in reducing the use of drugs in sport?
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2017. Is there a role for implicit and explicit information about placebo and nocebo effects in reducing the use of drugs in sport?
Is the intention to use sport supplements a predictor of placebo and nocebo responding among athletes?
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2017. Is the intention to use sport supplements a predictor of placebo and nocebo responding among athletes?
Athletes intending to use sports supplements are more likely to respond to a placebo
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2017. Athletes intending to use sports supplements are more likely to respond to a placebo. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (MSSE). https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001297
Development and validation of the sports supplements beliefs scale [Conference paper abstract]
Hurst, P., Foad, A. and Coleman, D. 2015. Development and validation of the sports supplements beliefs scale [Conference paper abstract]. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33 (Sup1), pp. s72-s74. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110330
Expectations, caffeine and pacing strategy: how positive and negative expectations can influence running performance
Hurst, P. 2014. Expectations, caffeine and pacing strategy: how positive and negative expectations can influence running performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 48 (A3). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-094245.8
Expectancy effects on competitive 5 km time-trial performance
Hurst, P. 2013. Expectancy effects on competitive 5 km time-trial performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47 (17). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093073.15
Reproducibility of outdoor 5 km running time-trial in a competitive environment
Hurst, P. 2013. Reproducibility of outdoor 5 km running time-trial in a competitive environment. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47 (e4). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093073.14
Development and validation of the Sports Supplements Beliefs Scale
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2016. Development and validation of the Sports Supplements Beliefs Scale. Performance Enhancement & Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peh.2016.10.001
Reliability of 5-km running performance in a competitive environment
Hurst, P. and Board, L. 2016. Reliability of 5-km running performance in a competitive environment. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367X.2016.1233421
Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise
Hurst, P., Foad, A. and Beedie, C. 2016. Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise. in: Lane, A. (ed.) Sport and Exercise Psychology London Routledge. pp. 325-344
Capitalizing on the placebo component of treatments
Beedie, C., Foad, A. and Hurst, P. 2015. Capitalizing on the placebo component of treatments. Current Sports Medicine Reports (CSMR). 14 (4), pp. 284-287. https://doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0000000000000172
Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation over 5 km
Hurst, P., Coleman, D. and Saunders, S. 2015. Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation over 5 km. British Journal of Sports Medicine: International Sports Science + Sports Medicine Conference 2015 Abstracts Newcastle Upon Tyne 8–10th September 2015. 49 (Sup. 2), pp. A6-A6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095576.17
Placebo and nocebo effects during repeat sprint performance
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2016. Placebo and nocebo effects during repeat sprint performance.
Knowledge and experience of placebo effects modifies athletes’ intentions to use sport supplements
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2016. Knowledge and experience of placebo effects modifies athletes’ intentions to use sport supplements.