Sport supplement use predicts doping attitudes and likelihood via sport supplement beliefs

Journal article


Hurst, P., Kavussanu, M., Boardley, I. and Ring, C. 2019. Sport supplement use predicts doping attitudes and likelihood via sport supplement beliefs. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1589920
AuthorsHurst, P., Kavussanu, M., Boardley, I. and Ring, C.
Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine: 1) whether sport supplement use is related to doping and 2) whether sport supplement beliefs mediated this relationship. In Study 1, athletes (N = 598), completed measures of sport supplement use, sport supplement beliefs, and doping attitudes. In Study 2, athletes (N = 475) completed measures of sport supplement use, sport supplement beliefs, and doping likelihood. In both studies, sport supplement use predicted doping outcomes indirectly via sport supplement beliefs. Our findings provide novel evidence to suggest that sport supplement users, who strongly believe that sport supplements are effective, are more likely to dope. For anti-doping organisations wishing to prevent doping, targeting an athlete’s beliefs about sport supplements may improve the effectiveness of anti-doping prevention programmes.

KeywordsDrug; gateway hypothesis; Incremental model of doping behaviour; nutrition; performance enhancement
Year2019
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
PublisherTaylor & Francis
ISSN0264-0414
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1589920
Publication dates
Online12 Mar 2019
Publication process dates
Deposited07 Mar 2019
Accepted26 Feb 2019
Accepted author manuscript
Output statusPublished
References

Ajzen, I. (1985). From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior Berlin: Springer.
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research: Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Backhouse, S., Whitaker, L., Patterson, L., Erickson, K., & McKenna, J. (2016). Social Psychology of Doping in Sport: A Mixed Studies Narrative Synthesis. Montreal, Canada: World Anti-Doping Agency.
Backhouse, S. H., Whitaker, L., & Petroczi, A. (2013). Gateway to doping? Supplement use in the context of preferred competitive situations, doping attitude, beliefs, and norms. The Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23(2). 244-252.
Beedie, C., Benedetti, F., Barbiani, D., Camerone, E., Cohen, E., Coleman, D., . . . Szabo, A. (2018). Consensus statement on placebo effects in sports and exercise: the need for conceptual clarity, methodological rigour, and the elucidation of neurobiological mechanisms. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(10). 1383-1389.
Bloodworth, A. J., Petroczi, A., Bailey, R., Pearce, G., & McNamee, M. J. (2012). Doping and supplementation: the attitudes of talented young athletes. The Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 22(2). 293-301.
Boardley, I. D., Grix, J., & Harkin, J. (2015). Doping in team and individual sports: a qualitative investigation of moral disengagement and associated processes. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 7(5). 698-717.
Bohner, G., & Dickel, N. (2011). Attitudes and attitude change. Annual review of psychology, 62. 391-417.
Chan, D. K., Hardcastle, S., Dimmock, J. A., Lentillon-Kaestner, V., Donovan, R. J., Burgin, M., & Hagger, M. S. (2015). Modal salient belief and social cognitive variables of anti-doping behaviors in sport: Examining an extended model of the theory of planned behavior. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16. 164-174.
Cohen, P. A., Bloszies, C., Yee, C., & Gerona, R. (2016). An amphetamine isomer whose efficacy and safety in humans has never been studied, beta-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA), is found in multiple dietary supplements. Drug Test Anal, 8(3-4). 328-333.
Dascombe, B. J., Karunaratna, M., Cartoon, J., Fergie, B., & Goodman, C. (2010). Nutritional supplementation habits and perceptions of elite athletes within a state-based sporting institute. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(2). 274-280.
Elbe, A.-M., & Brand, R. (2016). The effect of an ethical decision-making training on young athletes’ attitudes toward doping. Ethics & Behavior, 26(1). 32-44.
Geyer, H., Parr, M., Mareck, U., Reinhart, U., Schrader, Y., & Schänzer, W. (2004). Analysis of non-hormonal nutritional supplements for anabolic-androgenic steroids-results of an international study. International journal of sports medicine, 25(02). 124-129.
Geyer, H., Parr, M. K., Koehler, K., Mareck, U., Schanzer, W., & Thevis, M. (2008). Nutritional supplements cross-contaminated and faked with doping substances. J Mass Spectrom, 43(7). 892-902.
Hauw, D., & McNamee, M. (2015). A critical analysis of three psychological research programs of doping behaviour. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16. 140-148.
Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication monographs, 76(4). 408-420.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach (Methodology in the Social Sciences) New York, NY: Guilford-Press.
Hildebrandt, T., Harty, S., & Langenbucher, J. W. (2012). Fitness supplements as a gateway substance for anabolic-androgenic steroid use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26(4). 955-962.
Hurst, P., Foad, A. J., Coleman, D. A., & Beedie, C. (2017a). Athletes Intending to Use Sports Supplements Are More Likely to Respond to a Placebo. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (MSSE), 40(9). 1877-1883.
Hurst, P., Foad, A. J., Coleman, D. A., & Beedie, C. (2017b). Development and validation of the Sports Supplements Beliefs Scale Performance Enhancement & Health, 5(3). 89-97.
Huybers, T., & Mazanov, J. (2012). What would Kim do: A choice study of projected athlete doping considerations. Journal of sport management, 26(4). 322-334.
Kandel, D. (1975). Stages in adolescent involvement in drug use. Science, 190(4217). 912-914.
Kavussanu, M., & Ring, C. (2017). Moral identity predicts doping likelihood via moral disengagement and anticipated guilt. Journal of sport & exercise psychology, 39(4). 293-301.
Knapik, J. J., Steelman, R. A., Hoedebecke, S. S., Austin, K. G., Farina, E. K., & Lieberman, H. R. (2016). Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use by Athletes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine, 46(1). 103-123.
Lazuras, L., Barkoukis, V., Mallia, L., Lucidi, F., & Brand, R. (2017). More than a feeling: The role of anticipated regret in predicting doping intentions in adolescent athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 30. 196-204.
Little, R. J. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American statistical Association, 83(404). 1198-1202.
Maughan, R. J., Burke, L. M., Dvorak, J., Larson-Meyer, D. E., Peeling, P., Phillips, S. M., . . . Geyer, H. (2018). IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 28(2). 104-125.
Nicholls, A. R., Madigan, D. J., & Levy, A. R. (2017). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale for adult and adolescent athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 28. 100-104.
Ntoumanis, N., Ng, J. Y., Barkoukis, V., & Backhouse, S. (2014). Personal and psychosocial predictors of doping use in physical activity settings: a meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 44(11). 1603-1624.
Petróczi, A. (2006). Measuring attitude toward doping: Further evidence for the psychometric properties of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale. 14th Congress of the European Association for Sport Management. Nicosia, Cyprus.
Petróczi, A. (2007). Attitudes and doping: a structural equation analysis of the relationship between athletes' attitudes, sport orientation and doping behaviour. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 2. 34.
Petróczi, A. (2013). The doping mindset—Part I: Implications of the Functional Use Theory on mental representations of doping. Performance Enhancement & Health, 2(4). 153-163.
Petróczi, A., & Aidman, E. (2009). Measuring explicit attitude toward doping: Review of the psychometric properties of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(3). 390-396.
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior research methods, instruments, & computers, 36(4). 717-731.
Preacher, K. J., & Kelley, K. (2011). Effect size measures for mediation models: quantitative strategies for communicating indirect effects. Psychological methods, 16(2). 93-115.
Ring, C., & Hurst, P. (2019). The effects of moral disengagement mechanisms on doping likelihood are mediated by guilt and moderated by moral traits. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 40. 33-41.
Ring, C., & Kavussanu, M. (2018). Ego involvement increases doping likelihood. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(15). 1757-1762.
Ring, C., Kavussanu, M., Simms, M., & Mazanov, J. (2018). Effects of situational costs and benefits on projected doping likelihood. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 34. 88-94.
Schwarz, N. (2007). Attitude construction: Evaluation in context. Social cognition, 25(5). 638-656.
WADC. (2015). The World Anti-Doping Code. Montreal, Canada: The World Anti-Doping Agency Retrieved from https://www.wada-ama.org/sites/default/files/resources/files/wada-20...
Whitaker, L., & Backhouse, S. H. (2017). Doping in sport: an analysis of sanctioned UK rugby union players between 2009 and 2015. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35(16). 1607-1613.
Whitaker, L., Long, J., Petróczi, A., & Backhouse, S. H. (2014). Using the prototype willingness model to predict doping in sport. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(5). e398-e405.
Zelli, A., Mallia, L., & Lucidi, F. (2010). The contribution of interpersonal appraisals to a social-cognitive analysis of adolescents' doping use. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11(4). 304-311.

Permalink -

https://repository.canterbury.ac.uk/item/88yyq/sport-supplement-use-predicts-doping-attitudes-and-likelihood-via-sport-supplement-beliefs

Download files


Accepted author manuscript
  • 41
    total views
  • 67
    total downloads
  • 1
    views this month
  • 2
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

The development and evaluation of a moral intervention aimed to prevent doping in sport: A cluster randomized control trial
Kavussanu, M. and Hurst, P. 2020. The development and evaluation of a moral intervention aimed to prevent doping in sport: A cluster randomized control trial. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology.
Athletes using ergogenic and medical sport supplements report more favourable attitudes to doping than non-users
Hurst, P., Ring, C. and Kavussanu, M. 2020. Athletes using ergogenic and medical sport supplements report more favourable attitudes to doping than non-users. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.09.012
The placebo effect in sport: How practitioners can inject words to improve performance
Roelands, B. and Hurst, P. 2020. The placebo effect in sport: How practitioners can inject words to improve performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15 (6), pp. 765-766. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0358
Can taste be ergogenic?
Best, R., McDonald, K., Hurst, P. and Pickering, C. 2020. Can taste be ergogenic? European Journal of Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02274-5
Dual career: balancing success in sport and life
Howland, L., Papadimitriou, A., Minoudis, V. and Hurst, P. 2020. Dual career: balancing success in sport and life. in: Chatziefstathiou, D., Garcia, B. and Seguin, B. (ed.) Routledge Handbook of the Olympic and Paralympic Games Routledge. pp. 1-21
No differences between beetroot juice and placebo on competitive 5-km running performance: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Hurst, P. and Coleman, D. 2020. No differences between beetroot juice and placebo on competitive 5-km running performance: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism.
Who responds to a placebo? Factors associated with response to placebo during a double-blind randomised controlled trial
Hurst, P., Saunders, S. and Coleman, D. 2020. Who responds to a placebo? Factors associated with response to placebo during a double-blind randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Sport Science.
Emailed - Are Nike's Vaporfly trainers the emperor's new shoes?
Hurst, P. 2020. Emailed - Are Nike's Vaporfly trainers the emperor's new shoes? CCCU Expert Comment.
An evaluation of UK Athletics’ Clean Sport Programme in preventing doping in junior elite athletes
Hurst, P., Ring, C and Kavussanu, M. 2020. An evaluation of UK Athletics’ Clean Sport Programme in preventing doping in junior elite athletes. Performance Enhancement & Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peh.2019.100155
An educational placebo effect intervention reduces the likelihood of athletes using performance enhancing drugs
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2018. An educational placebo effect intervention reduces the likelihood of athletes using performance enhancing drugs.
Psychological mechanisms underlying morality in sport
Hurst, P. 2019. Psychological mechanisms underlying morality in sport.
Fear of failure predicts doping likelihood in competitive athletes
Hurst, P. 2018. Fear of failure predicts doping likelihood in competitive athletes.
Improved 1000-m running performance and pacing strategy with caffeine and placebo effect: a balanced placebo design study
Hurst, P., Schiphof-Godart, l., Hettinga, F., Roelands, B. and Beedie, C. 2019. Improved 1000-m running performance and pacing strategy with caffeine and placebo effect: a balanced placebo design study. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 15 (4), pp. 483-488. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0230
The placebo and nocebo effect on sports performance: a systematic review
Hurst, P., Schiphof-Godart, l., Szabo, A., Raglin, J., Hettinga, F., Roelands, B., Lane, A., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2019. The placebo and nocebo effect on sports performance: a systematic review. European Journal of Sport Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2019.1655098
Notes and tips on surveys
Hurst, P. and Bird, S. 2019. Notes and tips on surveys. in: Bird, S. (ed.) Research Methods in Physical Activity and Health London and New York Routledge. pp. 102-108
Questionnaires
Hurst, P. and Bird, S. 2019. Questionnaires. in: Bird, S. (ed.) Research Methods in Physical Activity and Health London and New York Routledge. pp. 93-101
Evaluating the effectiveness of the VIRTUES and HEROES projects: qualitative evidence
Kavussanu, M., King, A., Hurst, P., Skloufa, L. and Barkoukis, V. 2018. Evaluating the effectiveness of the VIRTUES and HEROES projects: qualitative evidence.
Preventing doping in sport: the HEROES project
Kavussanu, M., Hurst, P., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Elbe, A. and Ring, C. 2018. Preventing doping in sport: the HEROES project.
Preventing doping in sport: the VIRTUES project
Kavussanu, M., Hurst, P., Barkoukis, V., Skoufa, L., King, A. and Ring, C. 2018. Preventing doping in sport: the VIRTUES project.
The effects of moral disengagement on doping likelihood and guilt
Kavussanu, M., Ring, C. and Hurst, P. 2018. The effects of moral disengagement on doping likelihood and guilt.
Social cognitive predictors of doping intentions: a multi-national study
Kavussanu, M., Skoufa, L., Barkoukis, V., Hurst, P., Chirico, A., Lucidi, F. and Ring, C. 2018. Social cognitive predictors of doping intentions: a multi-national study.
Effects of personal and situational factors on self-referenced doping likelihood
Ring, C., Kavussanu, M., Lucidi, S. and Hurst, P. 2018. Effects of personal and situational factors on self-referenced doping likelihood. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.11.003
The effects of moral disengagement mechanisms on doping likelihood are mediated by guilt and moderated by moral traits
Ring, C. and Hurst, P. 2018. The effects of moral disengagement mechanisms on doping likelihood are mediated by guilt and moderated by moral traits. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 40, pp. 33-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.09.001
Could placebos be putting lives at risk?
Hurst, P. and Beedie, C. 2018. Could placebos be putting lives at risk? CCCU Expert Comment.
The placebo and nocebo effect in sport: intentions, attitudes and beliefs towards sport supplements and banned performance enhancing substances
Hurst, P. 2018. The placebo and nocebo effect in sport: intentions, attitudes and beliefs towards sport supplements and banned performance enhancing substances. PhD Thesis Canterbury Christ Church University Faculty of Social and Applied Sciences
Consensus statement on placebo effects in sports and exercise: the need for conceptual clarity, methodological rigour, and the elucidation of neurobiological mechanisms.
Beedie, C., Hurst, P., Coleman, D., Foad, A., Benedetti, F., Cohen, E., Davis, A., Elseworth-Edelsten, C., Flowers, E., Roelands, B., Hettinga, F., Raglin, J., Szabo, A., Camerone, E., Barbiani, D., Lane, A., Lindheimer, J., Schiphof-Godart, l. and Harvey, S. 2018. Consensus statement on placebo effects in sports and exercise: the need for conceptual clarity, methodological rigour, and the elucidation of neurobiological mechanisms. European Journal of Sport Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2018.1496144
Caution, this treatment is a placebo. It might work, but it might not”: why emerging mechanistic evidence for placebo effects does not legitimise complementary and alternative medicines in sport
Beedie, C., Whyte, G., Coleman, D., Hurst, P., Cohen, E., Lane, A., Raglin, J. and Foad, A. 2017. Caution, this treatment is a placebo. It might work, but it might not”: why emerging mechanistic evidence for placebo effects does not legitimise complementary and alternative medicines in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-097747
Is there a role for implicit and explicit information about placebo and nocebo effects in reducing the use of drugs in sport?
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2017. Is there a role for implicit and explicit information about placebo and nocebo effects in reducing the use of drugs in sport?
Is the intention to use sport supplements a predictor of placebo and nocebo responding among athletes?
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2017. Is the intention to use sport supplements a predictor of placebo and nocebo responding among athletes?
Athletes intending to use sports supplements are more likely to respond to a placebo
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2017. Athletes intending to use sports supplements are more likely to respond to a placebo. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (MSSE). https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001297
Development and validation of the sports supplements beliefs scale [Conference paper abstract]
Hurst, P., Foad, A. and Coleman, D. 2015. Development and validation of the sports supplements beliefs scale [Conference paper abstract]. Journal of Sports Sciences. 33 (Sup1), pp. s72-s74. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1110330
Expectations, caffeine and pacing strategy: how positive and negative expectations can influence running performance
Hurst, P. 2014. Expectations, caffeine and pacing strategy: how positive and negative expectations can influence running performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 48 (A3). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-094245.8
Expectancy effects on competitive 5 km time-trial performance
Hurst, P. 2013. Expectancy effects on competitive 5 km time-trial performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47 (17). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093073.15
Reproducibility of outdoor 5 km running time-trial in a competitive environment
Hurst, P. 2013. Reproducibility of outdoor 5 km running time-trial in a competitive environment. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47 (e4). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093073.14
Development and validation of the Sports Supplements Beliefs Scale
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2016. Development and validation of the Sports Supplements Beliefs Scale. Performance Enhancement & Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peh.2016.10.001
Reliability of 5-km running performance in a competitive environment
Hurst, P. and Board, L. 2016. Reliability of 5-km running performance in a competitive environment. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367X.2016.1233421
Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise
Hurst, P., Foad, A. and Beedie, C. 2016. Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise. in: Lane, A. (ed.) Sport and Exercise Psychology London Routledge. pp. 325-344
Capitalizing on the placebo component of treatments
Beedie, C., Foad, A. and Hurst, P. 2015. Capitalizing on the placebo component of treatments. Current Sports Medicine Reports (CSMR). 14 (4), pp. 284-287. https://doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0000000000000172
Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation over 5 km
Hurst, P., Coleman, D. and Saunders, S. 2015. Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation over 5 km. British Journal of Sports Medicine: International Sports Science + Sports Medicine Conference 2015 Abstracts Newcastle Upon Tyne 8–10th September 2015. 49 (Sup. 2), pp. A6-A6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095576.17
Placebo and nocebo effects during repeat sprint performance
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2016. Placebo and nocebo effects during repeat sprint performance.
Knowledge and experience of placebo effects modifies athletes’ intentions to use sport supplements
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2016. Knowledge and experience of placebo effects modifies athletes’ intentions to use sport supplements.