The perception of time is slowed in response to exercise, an effect not further compounded by competitors: behavioral implications for exercise and health.

Journal article


Edwards, Andrew, Menting, Stein Gerrit Paul, Elferink-Gemser, Marije Titia and Hettinga, Florentina Johanna 2024. The perception of time is slowed in response to exercise, an effect not further compounded by competitors: behavioral implications for exercise and health. Brain and behavior. 14 (4), p. e3471. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.3471
AuthorsEdwards, Andrew, Menting, Stein Gerrit Paul, Elferink-Gemser, Marije Titia and Hettinga, Florentina Johanna
AbstractThe theory of relativity postulates that time is relative to context and exercise seems such a situation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether situational factors such as perceived exertion and the introduction of an opponent influence competitors' perception of time. Thirty-three recreationally active adults (F = 16; M = 17) performed three standardized 4-km cycling trials in a randomized order. Velotron 3D software was used to create a visual, virtual environment representing (1) a solo time trial (FAM and SO), (2) a time trial with a passive opponent avatar (PO), and (3) a time trial with an opponent avatar and participant instruction to actively finish the trial before the opponent (AO). Participants were asked to estimate a 30-s time period using a standardized protocol for reproducibility before exercise at 500 m, 1500 m, 2500 m, and post exercise. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured throughout the trials. Exercise trials revealed that time was perceived to run "slow" compared to chronological time during exercise compared to resting and post-exercise measurements (p < 0.001). There was no difference between exercise conditions (SO, PO, and AO) or time points (500 m, 1500 m, and 2500 m). RPE increased throughout the trials. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time that exercise both with and without the influence of opponents influences time perception. This finding has important implications for healthy exercise choices and also for optimal performance. Independent of RPE, time was perceived to move slower during exercise, underpinning inaccurate pacing and decision-making across physical activities. [Abstract copyright: © 2024 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.]
KeywordsSelf‐regulation; Competition; Pacing; Exercise-behaviour; Time perception
Year2024
JournalBrain and behavior
Journal citation14 (4), p. e3471
PublisherWiley
ISSN2162-3279
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.3471
Official URLhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/brb3.3471
Publication dates
Online01 Apr 2024
Publication process dates
Accepted28 Feb 2024
Deposited15 Apr 2024
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
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