Studying placebo effects in model organisms will help us understand them in humans

Journal article


Harvey, S. and Beedie, C. 2017. Studying placebo effects in model organisms will help us understand them in humans. Biology Letters. 13 (11). https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2017.0585
AuthorsHarvey, S. and Beedie, C.
Abstract

The placebo effect is widely recognized, but important questions remain, for example whether the capacity to respond to a placebo is an evolved, and potentially ubiquitous trait, or an unpredictable side-effect of another evolved process. Understanding this will determine the degree to which the physiology underlying placebo effects might be manipulated or harnessed to optimize medical treatments. We argue that placebo effects are cases of phenotypic plasticity where once predictable cues are now unpredictable. Importantly, this explains why placebo-like effects are observed in less complex organisms such as worms and flies. Further, this indicates that such species present significant opportunities to test hypotheses that would be ethically or pragmatically impossible in humans. This paradigm also suggests that data informative of human placebo effects pre-exists in studies of model organisms.

KeywordsCaenorhabditis; Drosophila; nocebo effect; phenotypic plasticity, placebo
Year2017
JournalBiology Letters
Journal citation13 (11)
PublisherThe Royal Society
ISSN1744-9561
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2017.0585
Publication dates
Print29 Nov 2017
Publication process dates
Deposited07 Nov 2017
Accepted02 Nov 2017
Accepted author manuscript
Output statusPublished
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Molecular-cytogenetic analysis reveals sequence differences between the sex chromosomes of Oreochromis niloticus: evidence for an early stage of sex-chromosome differentiation
Harvey, S., Masabanda, J., Carrasco, L., Bromage, N., Penman, D. and Griffin, D. 2002. Molecular-cytogenetic analysis reveals sequence differences between the sex chromosomes of Oreochromis niloticus: evidence for an early stage of sex-chromosome differentiation. Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 97 (1-2), pp. 76-80. https://doi.org/10.1159/000064036
Karyotype evolution in tilapia: mitotic and meiotic chromosome analysis of Oreochromis Karongae and O. Niloticus × O. Karongae hybrids
Harvey, S., Campos-Ramos, R., Kennedy, D., Ezaz, M., Bromage, N., Griffin, D. and Penman, D. 2002. Karyotype evolution in tilapia: mitotic and meiotic chromosome analysis of Oreochromis Karongae and O. Niloticus × O. Karongae hybrids. Genetica. 115 (2), pp. 169-177. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020190918431
Early origins of the X and Y chromosomes: lessons from tilapia
Griffin, D., Harvey, S., Campos-Ramos, R., Ayling, L., Bromage, N., Masabanda, J. and Penman, D. 2002. Early origins of the X and Y chromosomes: lessons from tilapia. Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 99 (1-4), pp. 157-163. https://doi.org/10.1159/000071588
An investigation of sex determination in the Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, using synaptonemal complex analysis, FISH, sex reversal and gynogenesis
Campos-Ramos, R., Harvey, S., McAndrew, B. and Penman, D. 2003. An investigation of sex determination in the Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, using synaptonemal complex analysis, FISH, sex reversal and gynogenesis. Aquaculture. 221 (1-4), pp. 125-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00072-3
Physical mapping of the brain and ovarian aromatase genes in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, by fluorescence in situ hybridization
Harvey, S., Kwon, J. and Penman, D. 2003. Physical mapping of the brain and ovarian aromatase genes in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Animal Genetics. 34 (1), pp. 62-64. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2052.2003.00941.x
Analysis of repetitive DNA sequences in the sex chromosomes of Oreochromis niloticus
Harvey, S., Boonphakdee, C., Campos-Ramos, R., Ezaz, M., Griffin, D., Bromage, N. and Penman, D. 2003. Analysis of repetitive DNA sequences in the sex chromosomes of Oreochromis niloticus. Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 101 (3-4), pp. 314-319. https://doi.org/10.1159/000074355
Isolation and physical mapping of sex-linked AFLP markers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)
Ezaz, M., Harvey, S., Boonphakdee, C., Teale, A., McAndrew, B. and Penman, D. 2004. Isolation and physical mapping of sex-linked AFLP markers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Marine Biotechnology. 6 (5), pp. 435-445. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10126-004-3004-6
Thermal variation reveals natural variation between isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans
Harvey, S. and Viney, M. 2007. Thermal variation reveals natural variation between isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution. 308B (4), pp. 409-416. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.b.21161
Caffeine works: whether you believe it or not: evidence for pharmacological effects of caffeine ingestion on 40km cycling performance
Foad, A., Beedie, C. and Coleman, D. 2006. Caffeine works: whether you believe it or not: evidence for pharmacological effects of caffeine ingestion on 40km cycling performance.
Placebo effects of ergogenic aids in sports performance: experimental, psychometric and interview data
Beedie, C., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Uphill, M. 2006. Placebo effects of ergogenic aids in sports performance: experimental, psychometric and interview data.
Is caffeine all in the head? Evidence for the placebo effects attributable to caffeine in cycling performance
Beedie, C., Stuart, E., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2006. Is caffeine all in the head? Evidence for the placebo effects attributable to caffeine in cycling performance.
Preparing students for the real world
Beedie, C. 2005. Preparing students for the real world. Sport and Exercise Scientist. 6.
Possible implications of nervous system-immune system links in sports rehabilitation
Beedie, C. and Hopker, J. 2005. Possible implications of nervous system-immune system links in sports rehabilitation. SportEX Medicine.
Potential for the use of the placebo effect in sport rehabilitation
Beedie, C. and Hopker, J. 2005. Potential for the use of the placebo effect in sport rehabilitation. SportEX Medicine.
Mood matters: a response to Mellalieu
Lane, A., Beedie, C. and Stevens, M. 2005. Mood matters: a response to Mellalieu. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 17 (4), pp. 319-325. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200500313610
Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise
Beedie, C. and Foad, A. 2008. Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise. in: Lane, A. (ed.) Sport and Exercise Psychology London Hodder Education. pp. 211-225
Sex-specific differences in the synaptonemal complex in the genus Oreochromis (Cichlidae)
Campos-Ramos, R., Harvey, S. and Penman, D. 2009. Sex-specific differences in the synaptonemal complex in the genus Oreochromis (Cichlidae). Genetica. 135 (3), pp. 325-332. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10709-008-9280-8
Natural variation in gene expression in the early development of dauer larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans
Harvey, S., Barker, G., Shorto, A. and Viney, M. 2009. Natural variation in gene expression in the early development of dauer larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans. BMC Genomics. 10 (1), p. 325. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-10-325
Identification of placebo responsive participants in 40km laboratory cycling performance
Beedie, C., Foad, A. and Coleman, D. 2008. Identification of placebo responsive participants in 40km laboratory cycling performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 7 (1), pp. 166-175.
Pharmacological and psychological effects of caffeine ingestion in 40-km cycling performance
Foad, A., Beedie, C. and Coleman, D. 2008. Pharmacological and psychological effects of caffeine ingestion in 40-km cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 40 (1), pp. 158-165. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e3181593e02
Non-dauer larval dispersal in Caenorhabditis elegans
Harvey, S. 2009. Non-dauer larval dispersal in Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution. 312B (3), pp. 224-230. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.b.21287
Towards empirical distinctions between emotion and mood: a subjective contextual model
Beedie, C. 2007. Towards empirical distinctions between emotion and mood: a subjective contextual model. in: Lane, A. (ed.) Mood and Human Performance: Conceptual, Measurement and Applied Issues New York Nova Science Publishers. pp. 63-87
Positive and negative placebo effects resulting from the deceptive administration of an ergogenic aid
Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2007. Positive and negative placebo effects resulting from the deceptive administration of an ergogenic aid. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 17 (3), pp. 259-269.
Placebo effects of caffeine on cycling performance
Beedie, C., Stuart, E., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2006. Placebo effects of caffeine on cycling performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 38 (12), pp. 2159-2164. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000233805.56315.a9
Distinctions between emotion and mood
Beedie, C., Terry, P. and Lane, A. 2005. Distinctions between emotion and mood. Cognition & Emotion. 19 (6), pp. 847-878. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930541000057
Placebo effects in competitive sport: qualitative data
Beedie, C. 2007. Placebo effects in competitive sport: qualitative data. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 6 (1), pp. 21-28.
The placebo effect in sports performance: a brief review
Beedie, C. and Foad, A. 2009. The placebo effect in sports performance: a brief review. Sports Medicine. 39 (4), pp. 313-329. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200939040-00004
The control of morph development in the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti
Harvey, S., Gemmill, A., Read, A. and Viney, M. 2000. The control of morph development in the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 267 (1457), pp. 2057-2063.