Improving skills and care standards in the support workforce for older people: a realist synthesis of workforce development interventions
Rycroft-Malone, J., Burton, C., Williams, L., Edwards, S., Fisher, D., Hall, B., McCormack, B., Nutley, S., Seddon, D. and Williams, R. 2016. Improving skills and care standards in the support workforce for older people: a realist synthesis of workforce development interventions. National Institute of Health Research. https://doi.org/10.3310/hsdr04120
|Authors||Rycroft-Malone, J., Burton, C., Williams, L., Edwards, S., Fisher, D., Hall, B., McCormack, B., Nutley, S., Seddon, D. and Williams, R.|
Conclusions and recommendations
|Publisher||National Institute of Health Research|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)||https://doi.org/10.3310/hsdr04120|
|Publication process dates|
|Deposited||28 May 2020|
1. Wise J. Number of ‘oldest old’ has doubled in the past 25 years. BMJ 2010;340:c3057-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c3057
2. International Longevity Centre. Ageing, Longevity and Demographic Change: A Fact Pack of Statistics from the International Longevity Centre. London: International Longevity Centre; 2013.
3. Shield F, Enderby P, Nancarrow S. Stakeholder views of the training needs of an interprofessional practitioner who works with older people. Nurse Educ Today 2006;26:367-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2005.11.006
4. The Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Inquiry. Independent Inquiry into Care Provided by Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust. January 2005–March 2009. London: The Stationery Office; 2010.
5. Reed J, Cook G, Childs S, McCormack B. A literature review to explore integrated care for older people. Int J Integr Care 2005;5:1-8.
6. Institute of Fiscal Studies. NHS and Social Care Funding: The Outlook to 2021/22. London: The Nuffield Trust; 2012.
7. Care Quality Commission. Cracks in the Pathway Summary. People’s Experiences of Dementia Care as They Move between Care Homes and Hospitals. London: Care Quality Commission; 2014.
8. Health Service Journal/Serco. Commission on Hospital Care for Frail Older People. London: ; 2014.
9. Care Quality Commission. Dignity and Nutrition Inspection Programme: National Overview. London: Care Quality Commission; 2011.
10. Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman. Care and Compassion? Report of the Health Service Ombudsman on Ten Investigations into NHS Care of Older People. London: The Stationery Office; 2011.
11. Joint Committee on Human Rights. The Human Rights of Older People in Healthcare. Eighteenth Report of Session 2006–7. London: The Stationery Office; 2007.
12. Age UK/NHS Confederation. Delivering Dignity. Securing Dignity in Care for Older People in Hospitals and Care Homes. London: Age UK/NHS Confederation; 2012.
13. Office for National Statistics. National Bereavement Survey (VOICES). London: Office for National Statistics; 2012.
14. Rudd AG, Hoffman A, Down C, Pearson M, Lowe D. Access to stroke care in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: the effect of age, gender and weekend admission. Age Ageing 2007;36:247-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afm007
15. Gott M, Small N, Barnes S, Payne S, Seamark D. Older people’s views of a good death in heart failure: implications for palliative care provision. Soc Sci Med 2008;67:1113-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.05.024
16. Skills for Care. Evidence Review – Integrated Health and Social Care. Oxford: Institute of Public Care, Oxford Brookes University; 2013.
17. NHS England, Public Health England, Health Education England, Monitor, Care Quality Commission, NHS Trust Development Authority. Five Year Forward Review. London: NHS; 2014.
18. Gage C. Vibrant communities: the care homes of the future. J Dement Care 2014;22:22-5.
19. Council of Deans of Health. Shaping the Future: Education and Training for Nurses and Care Assistants. London: Council of Deans of Health; 2014.
20. Deloitte. Better Care for Frail Older People. Working Differently to Improve Care. London: Deloitte Centre for Health Studies; 2014.
21. Health Select Committee. Public Expenditure on Health and Social Care. London: Health Select Committee; 2014.
22. Skills for Care. Capable, Confident, Skilled – A Workforce Development Strategy for People Working, Supporting and Caring in Adult Social Care. Leeds: Skills for Care; 2011.
23. Kessler I, Spilsbury K, Heron P. Developing a high-performance support workforce in acute care: innovation, evaluation and engagement. Health Serv Deliv Res 2014;2:(25).
24. The NHS. Confederation. The support workforce in the NHS. SDO Network Research Digest 2011;1:
25. Saks M, Allsop J, Chevannes M, Clark M, Fagan R, Genders NEA. Review of Health Support Workers: Report to the UK Departments of Health. Leicester: De Montfort University; 2000.
26. Cavendish C. The Cavendish Review: An Independent Review into Healthcare Assistants and Support Workers in the NHS and Social Care Settings. London: Department of Health; 2013.
27. Health Education England. The Talent for Care – Feedback From Consultation on the Development of the Healthcare Support Workforce. London: Health Education England; 2014.
28. Moran A, Nancarrow SA, Enderby P. Mechanisms to enhance the effectiveness of allied health and social care assistants in community-based rehabilitation services: a qualitative study. Health Soc Care Community 2015;23:389-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12158
29. Schneider J, Scales K, Bailey S, Lloyd J. Challenging Care: The Role and Experience of Health Care Assistants in Dementia Wards. London: National Institute for Health Research; 2010.
30. Manthorpe J, Martineau S. Support Workers: Their Role and Tasks. London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King’s College London; 2008.
31. Nancarrow SA, Borthwick AM. Dynamic professional boundaries in the healthcare workforce. Sociol Health Illn 2005;27:897-919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2005.00463.x
32. Janes N, Sidani S, Cott C, Rappolt S. Figuring it out in the moment: a theory of unregulated care providers’ knowledge utilization in dementia care settings. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs 2008;5:13-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6787.2008.00114.x
33. Council of Deans of Health. Healthcare Support Workers in England: Five Proposals for Investing in Education and Development to Deliver High Quality, Effective and Compassionate Care. London: Council of Deans of Health; 2013.
34. Health Workforce Australia. Assistant and Support Workers: Workforce Flexibility to Boost Productivity – Full Report. Canberra, ACT: Department of Health Australia; 2014.
35. Estabrooks CA, Squires JE, Carleton HL, Cummings GG, Norton PG. Who is looking after mom and dad? Unregulated workers in Canadian long-term care homes. Can J Aging 2015;34:47-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0714980814000506
36. Berta W, Laporte A, Deber R, Baumann A, Gamble B. The evolving role of health care aides in the long-term care and home and community care sectors in Canada. Hum Resour Health 2013;11:25-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1478-4491-11-25
37. Cummings GG, Spiwek T, Hewko S, Cooper S, Lynch S, Huynh H. Shining a Light on the Unregulated Healthcare Aide Workforce. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta; 2013.
38. Griffiths P, Robinson S. Moving Forward With Healthcare Support Workforce Regulation. A Scoping Review: Evidence, Questions, Risks and Options. London: National Nursing Research Unit, King’s College London; 2010.
39. Kessler I, Heron P, Dopson S, Magee H, Swain D, Askham J. The Nature and Consequences of Support Workers in a Hospital Setting. London: National Institute for Health Research Service Delivery and Organisation programme; 2010.
40. NHS Education for Scotland. Healthcare Support Workers. The Development of the Clinical Support Worker Role: A Review of the Evidence. Edinburgh: NHS Education for Scotland; 2010.
41. Tadd W, Hillman A, Calnan S, Calnan M, Bayer T, Read S. Dignity in Practice: An Exploration of the Care of Older Adults in Acute NHS Trusts. London: National Institute for Health Research Service Delivery and Organisation programme; 2011.
42. Bond J, Bamford C, Arksey H, Poole M, Kirkley C, Hughes J. et al.. Person- and Carer-Centred Respite Care for People with Dementia: Developing Methods of Evaluating the Effectiveness of Different Models. Final Report. National Institute for Health Research Service Delivery and Organisation programme; 2009.
43. Spilsbury K, Adamson J, Atkin K, Bartlett C, Bloor K, Borglin GEA. Evaluation of the Development and Impact of Assistant Practitioners Supporting the Work of Ward-Based Registered Nurses in Acute NHS (Hospital) Trusts in England. London: National Institute for Health Research Service Delivery and Organisation programme; 2010.
44. Nancarrow S, Enderby PM, Moran A, Dixon S, Parker S. The Relationship between Workforce Flexibility and the Costs and Outcomes of Older Peoples’ Services. London: National Institute for Health Research Service Delivery and Organisation programme; 2010.
45. Spilsbury K, Pender S, Bloor K, Borthwick R, Atkin K, McCaughan DEA. Support matters: a mixed methods scoping study on the use of assistant staff in the delivery of community nursing services in England. Health Serv Deliv Res 2013;1:(3).
46. Kessler I, Heron P, Dopson S. The Modernization of the Nursing Workforce: Valuing the Healthcare Assistant. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2012.
47. Manthorpe J, Martineau S, Moriarty J, Hussein S, Stevens M. Support workers in social care in England: a scoping study. Health Soc Care Community 2010;18:316-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2010.00910.x
48. Glasper A. Making caring a career: the role of the healthcare assistant. Br J Nurs 2013;22:1028-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2013.22.17.1028
49. Health Education England. Raising the Bar. Shape of Caring: A Review of the Future Education and Training of Registered Nurses and Care Assistants. London: Health Education England; 2015.
50. The Prime Minister’s Commission on the Future of Nursing and Midwifery in England. Frontline Care. London: The Prime Minister’s Commission on the Future of Nursing and Midwifery in England; 2010.
51. Department of Health. Berwick Review into Patient Safety. London: Department of Health; 2013.
52. Keogh B. Review into the Quality of Care and Treatment Provided by 14 Hospital Trusts in England: Overview Report. NHS England; 2013.
53. Willis Commission on Nursing Education. Quality with Compassion: The Future of Nursing Education. Royal College of Nursing; 2012.
54. Arborio AM. Climbing invisible ladders: how nurse’s aides craft lateral careers. Ethnography 2004;5:75-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1466138104041589
55. Saks M, Allsop J. Social policy, professional regulation and health support work in the United Kingdom. Soc Policy Society 2007;6:165-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1474746406003435
56. Australian Nursing Federation. Balancing Risk and Safety for Our Community – Unlicenced Health Workers in the Health and Aged Care Systems. Canberra, ACT: Australian Nursing Federation; 2009.
57. Llewellyn M, Longley M, Fisk M, Boutall T, Wallace C, Roberts M. Care at Home. Challenges, Possibilities and Implications for the Workforce in Wales. Cardiff: Care Council for Wales; 2010.
58. Skills for Care/Skills for Health. Code of Conduct for Healthcare Support Workers and Adult Social Care Workers in England. 2013.
59. Care Council for Wales. Code of Practice for Social Care Workers. Cardiff: Care Council for Wales; 2010.
60. Care Council for Wales. Governance Framework for Development of the Health and Social Care Support Worker Role in Adult Services. Cardiff: Care Council for Wales; 2012.
61. Burstow Commission. Key to Care: Report of the Burstow Commission on the Future of the Home Care Workforce. London: Local Government Information Unit; 2014.
62. Care Quality Commission. The Partnership in Care Limited Prince of Wales House Inspection Report. 2015. URL: www.cqc.org.uk/sites/default/files/new_reports/AAAA2076.pdf (accessed 7 January 2015).
63. Independent Commission for Dignity in Care. Delivering Dignity: Securing Dignity in Care for Older People in Hospitals and Care Homes. Independent Commission on Dignity in Care; 2012.
64. Dreyfus SE, Dreyfus HL. A Five Stage Model of the Mental Activities Involved in Directed Skill Acquisition. Berkley, CA: University of California; 1980. URL: www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a084551.pdf (accessed 29 February 2016).
65. Pawson R, Tilley N. Realistic Evaluation. London: Sage Publications; 1997.
66. Rycroft-Malone J, McCormack B, Hutchinson AM, DeCorby K, Bucknall TK, Kent B. et al. Realist synthesis: illustrating the method for implementation research. Implement Sci 2012;7:33-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-7-33
67. Wong G, Greenhalgh T, Westhorp G, Buckingham J, Pawson R. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses. BMC Med 2013;11:21-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-11-21
68. McCormack B, Wright J, Dewar B, Harvey G, Ballantine K. A realist synthesis of evidence relating to practice development: findings from the literature analysis. Pract Dev Health Care 2007;6:25-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pdh.211
69. McCormack B, Rycroft-Malone J, DeCorby K, Hutchinson AM, Bucknall T, Kent B. et al. A realist review of interventions and strategies to promote evidence-informed healthcare: a focus on change agency. Implement Sci 2013;8:107-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-8-107
70. Hardwick R, Pearson M, Byng R, Anderson R. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of shared care: protocol for a realist review. Syst Rev 2013;2:12-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-2-12
71. McConnell T, O’Halloran P, Porter S, Donnelly M. Systematic realist review of key factors affecting the successful implementation and sustainability of the Liverpool care pathway for the dying patient. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs 2013;10:218-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/wvn.12003
72. Post J, Preston L, Sachs S. Managing the extended enterprise: the new stakeholder view. California Manage Rev 2002;45:6-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/41166151
73. Rycroft-Malone J, Burton C, Hall B, McCormack B, Nutley S, Seddon D. et al. Improving skills and care standards in the support workforce for older people: a realist review. BMJ Open 2014;4:e005356-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005356
74. Hewitt G, Sims S, Harris R. The realist approach to evaluation research: an introduction. Int J Therapy Rehabil 2012;19:250-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/ijtr.2012.19.5.250
75. Pawson R. Nothing as practical as a good theory. Evaluation 2003;9:471-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1356389003094007
76. Westhorp G, Prins E, Kusters C, Hultink M, Guijt I, Brouwers J. Realist Evaluation: An Overview. Wageningen: Centre for Development Innovation; 2011.
77. Pawson R. The Science of Evaluation: A Realist Manifesto. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2013.
78. Pawson R. Evidence-Based Policy: A Realist Perspective. London: Sage Publications; 2006.
79. Interventions to Improve Skills and Care Standards in the Clinical Support Workforce for Older People (Proposal). URL: www.nets.nihr.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/81801/CB-12–129–32.pdf (accessed 19 October 2015).
80. Eraut M. Informal learning in the workplace. Stud Continuing Educ 2004;26:247-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/158037042000225245
81. Daley BJ. Novice to expert: an exploration of how professionals learn. Adult Educ Q 1999;49:133-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074171369904900401
82. Bloom BS. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification Of Education Goals. Cognitive Domain. Handbook 1. New York, NY: Longman; 1956.
83. Grubb WN. From Isolation to Integration: Occupational Education and the Emerging Systems of Workforce Development. Centerpoint; 1999.
84. Jacobs RL. Understanding Workforce Development: Definition, Conceptual Boundaries, and Future Perspectives. Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba; 2002.
85. Hughes D, Bimrose J, Barnes S, Bowes L, Orton M. A Systematic Literature Review of Research into Career Development Interventions for Workforce Development. Derby: Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby; 2005.
86. Michie S, Johnston M, Abraham C, Lawton R, Parker D, Walker A. with the ‘Psychological Theory’ Group. Making psychological theory useful for implementing evidence based practice: a consensus approach. Qual Saf Health Care 2005;14:26-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2004.011155
87. Rycroft-Malone J, Kitson A, Harvey G, McCormack B, Seers K, Titchen A. et al. Ingredients for change: revisiting a conceptual framework. Qual Saf Health Care 2002;11:174-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/qhc.11.2.174
88. Nutley S, Davies H, Davies HTO, Nutley S, Smith PC. Criminal Justice: Using Evidence to Reduce Crime. What Works? Evidence-Based Policy and Practice in Public Services. Bristol: The Policy Press; 2009. pp. 93-116.
89. McCormack B, Dewar B, Wright J, Garbett R, Harvey G, Ballantine K. A Realist Synthesis of Evidence Relating to Practice Development. NHS Quality Improvement Scotland; 2006.
90. Easterby-Smith M. Disciplines of organizational learning: contributions and critiques. Hum Relations 1997;50:1085-113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679705000903
91. Berta W, Teare GF, Gilbart E, Ginsburg LS, Lemieux-Charles L, Davis D. et al. The contingencies of organizational learning in long-term care: factors that affect innovation adoption. Health Care Manage Rev 2005;30:282-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004010-200510000-00002
92. Ellinger AD, Cseh M. Contextual factors influencing the facilitation of others’ learning through everyday work experiences. J Workplace Learn 2007;19:435-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13665620710819384
93. Lane DC, Oliva R. The greater whole: towards a synthesis of system dynamics and soft systems methodology. Eur J Oper Res 1998;107:214-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(97)00205-1
94. Williams B. Soft Systems Methodology. The Kellogg Foundation; 2005.
95. Checkland P. Systems Thinking, Systems Practice. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons; 1999.
96. Pawson R. Digging for nuggets: How ‘bad’ research can yield ‘good’ evidence. Int J Soc Res Methodol 2006;9:127-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13645570600595314
97. Westhorp G, Walker B, Rogers P, Overbeeke N, Ball D, Brice G. Enhancing Community Accountability, Empowerment and Education Outcomes in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Realist Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London; 2014.
98. Greenhalgh T, Peacock R. Effectiveness and efficiency of search methods in systematic reviews of complex evidence: audit of primary sources. BMJ 2005;331:1064-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38636.593461.68
99. Brennan N, Bryce M, Pearson M, Wong G, Cooper C, Archer J. Understanding how appraisal of doctors produces its effects: a realist review protocol. BMJ Open 2014;4:e005466-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005466
100. Nutley SM, Walter I, Davies HTO. Using Evidence: How Research Can Inform Public Services. Bristol: Policy Press; 2007.
101. Jagosh J, Macaulay AC, Pluye P, Salsberg J, Bush PL, Henderson J. et al. Uncovering the benefits of participatory research: implications of a realist review for health research and practice. Milbank Q 2012;90:311-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2012.00665.x
102. Greenhalgh J, Pawson R, Wright J, Black N, Valderas JM, Meads D. et al. Functionality and feedback: a protocol for a realist synthesis of the collation, interpretation and utilisation of PROMs data to improve patient care. BMJ Open 2014;4:e005601-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005601
103. Gough D. Weight of evidence: a framework for the appraisal of the quality and relevance of evidence. Res Pap Educ 2007;22:213-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02671520701296189
104. Leeman J, Chang, YK, Lee EJ, Voils CI, Sandelowski M. Implementation of antiretroviral therapy adherence interventions: a realist synthesis of evidence. J Adv Nurs 2010;66:1915-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05360.x
105. Braun KL, Cheang M, Shigeta D. Increasing knowledge, skills, and empathy among direct care workers in elder care: a preliminary study of an active-learning model. Gerontologist 2005;45:118-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/45.1.118
106. Cherry B, Marshall-Gray P, Laurence A, Green A, Valadez A, Scott-Tilley D. et al. The geriatric training academy: innovative education for certified nurse aides and charge nurses. J Gerontol Nurs 2007;33:37-44.
107. Clare L, Whitaker R, Woods RT, Quinn C, Jelley H, Hoare Z. et al. AwareCare: a pilot randomized controlled trial of an awareness-based staff training intervention to improve quality of life for residents with severe dementia in long-term care settings. Int Psychogeriatr 2013;25:128-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610212001226
108. Coleman CK, Medvene LJ. A person-centered care intervention for geriatric certified nursing assistants. Gerontologist 2013;53:687-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gns135
109. Grosch K, Medvene L, Wolcott H. Person-centered caregiving instruction for geriatric nursing assistant students: development and evaluation. J Gerontol Nurs 2008;34:23-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00989134-20080801-07
110. Lerner NB, Resnick B, Galik E, Russ KG. Advanced nursing assistant education program. J Contin Educ Nurs 2010;41:356-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20100401-10
111. Ron P, Lowenstein A. In-service training of professional and para-professional staff in institutions for the aged. Educ Gerontol 2002;28:587-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601270290099787
112. Stevens AB, Hochhalter AK, Hyer L, Intrieri RC, Hyer L, Intrieri R. Meeting the Needs of Nursing Home Residents and Staff: The Informed Teams Model of Staff Development. Geropsychological Interventions in Long-Term Care. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co; 2006. pp. 245-61.
113. Tisher TB, Dean S, Tisher M. Aged care residential facility and family interface: a training program for staff. Clin Gerontol 2009;32:309-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07317110902895952
114. Wadensten B, Engström M, Häggström E. Public nursing home staff’s experience of participating in an intervention aimed at enhancing their self-esteem. J Nurs Manag 2009;17:833-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2009.00968.x
115. Hockley J. Learning, support and communication for staff in care homes: outcomes of reflective debriefing groups in two care homes to enhance end-of-life care. Int J Older People Nurs 2014;9:118-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/opn.12048
116. Nilsson A, Andrén M, Engström M. E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. BMC Geriatr 2014;14:52-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-14-52
117. Boettcher IF, Kemeny B, DeShon RP, Stevens AB. A system to develop staff behaviors for person-centered care. Alzheimers Care Q 2004;5:188-96.
118. Clarke A, Hanson EJ, Ross H. Seeing the person behind the patient: enhancing the care of older people using a biographical approach. J Clin Nurs 2003;12:697-706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2702.2003.00784.x
119. McKenzie Smith M, Turkhud K. Simulation-based education in support of HCA development. Br J Healthc Assist 2013;7:392-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjha.2013.7.8.392
120. McCallion P, Toseland RW, Lacey D, Banks S. Educating nursing assistants to communicate more effectively with nursing home residents with dementia. Gerontologist 1999;39:546-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/39.5.546
121. Smith B, Kerse N, Parsons M. Quality of residential care for older people: does education for healthcare assistants make a difference?. N Z Med J 2005;118:U1437-.
122. Lewis R, Kelly S, Whitfield M, McKenzie-Smith MM, Strachan A. An Evaluation of a Simulation-Based Educational Programme to Equip HCAs with the Necessary Non-Technical Skills to Undertake Their Role Safely and Effectively, Specifically in Relation to the Measurement of Vital Signs. Sheffield Hallam University; 2013.
123. Farrell P, Balshaw MH, Polat F. The Management, Role and Training of Learning Support Assistants. London: Department for Education and Employment; 1999.
124. Anderson RA, Ammarell N, Bailey D, Colón-Emeric C, Corazzini KN, Lillie M. et al. Nurse assistant mental models, sensemaking, care actions, and consequences for nursing home residents. Qual Health Res 2005;15:1006-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049732305280773
125. Proctor R, Stratton Powell H, Burns A, Tarrier N, Reeves D, Emerson E. et al. An observational study to evaluate the impact of a specialist outreach team on the quality of care in nursing and residential homes. Aging Ment Health 1998;2:232-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607869856713
126. Hancock H, Campbell S, Ramprogus V, Kilgour J. Role development in health care assistants: the impact of education on practice. J Eval Clin Pract 2005;11:489-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2753.2005.00569.x
127. Moxon S, Lyne K, Sinclair I, Young P, Kirk C. Mental health in residential homes: a role for care staff. Ageing Soc 2001;21:71-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X01008054
128. Passalacqua SA, Harwood J. VIPS communication skills training for paraprofessional dementia caregivers: an intervention to increase person-centered dementia care. Clin Gerontol 2012;35:425-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07317115.2012.702655
129. Thomson M, Burke K. A nursing assistant training program in a long term care setting. Gerontol Geriatr Educ 1998;19:23-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J021v19n01_03
130. McCormack B, Dewing J, Breslin L, Coyne-Nevin A, Kennedy K, Manning M. et al. Developing person-centred practice: nursing outcomes arising from changes to the care environment in residential settings for older people. Int J Older People Nurs 2010;5:93-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-3743.2010.00216.x
131. Welsh JD, Szabo GB. Teaching nursing assistant students about aphasia and communication. Semin Speech Lang 2011;32:243-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1286178
132. Coogle CL, Parham IA, Jablonski R, Rachel JA. The value of geriatric care enhancement training for direct service workers. Gerontol Geriatr Educ 2007;28:109-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J021v28n02_08
133. Hegeman CR. Peer mentoring of nursing home CNAs: a way to create a culture of caring. J Soc Work Long-Term Care 2003;2:183-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J181v02n01_13
134. Ersek M, Wood BB. Development and evaluation of a nursing assistant computerized education programme. Int J Palliat Nurs 2008;14:502-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/ijpn.2008.14.10.31495
135. White DL, Cadiz DM. Efficacy of work-based training for direct care workers in assisted living. J Aging Soc Policy 2013;25:281-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08959420.2013.816124
136. McGilton KS, O’Brien-Pallas LL, Darlington G, Evans M, Wynn F, Pringle DM. Effects of a relationship-enhancing program of care on outcomes. J Nurs Scholarsh 2003;35:151-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2003.00151.x
137. Graber DR, Mitcham MD, Coker-Bolt P, Wise HH, Jacques P, Edlund B. et al. The caring professionals program: educational approaches that integrate caring attitudes and empathic behaviors into health professions education. J Allied Health 2012;41:90-6.
138. Bourgeois MS, Dijkstra K, Burgio LD, Allen RS. Communication skills training for nursing aides of residents with dementia: the impact of measuring performance. Clin Gerontol 2004;27:119-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J018v27n01_10
139. Bryan K, Axelrod L, Maxim J, Bell L, Jordan L. Working with older people with communication difficulties: an evaluation of care worker training. Aging Ment Health 2002;6:248-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860220142495
140. O’Neill M. PCSOs as the Paraprofessionals of Policing: Findings and Recommendations from a Research Project. Dundee: University of Dundee; 2014. URL: www.sipr.ac.uk/downloads/PCSO_project_report.pdf (accessed 17 September 2014).
141. Morgan JC, Konrad TR. A mixed-method evaluation of a workforce development intervention for nursing assistants in nursing homes: the case of WIN A STEP UP. Gerontologist 2008;48:71-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/48.Supplement_1.71
142. Stevens-Roseman ES, Leung P. Enhancing attitudes, knowledge and skills of paraprofessional service providers in elder care settings. Gerontol Geriatr Educ 2004;25:73-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J021v25n01_05
143. Burgio LD, Allen-Burge R, Roth DL, Bourgeois MS, Dijkstra K, Gerstle J. et al. Come talk with me: improving communication between nursing assistants and nursing home residents during care routines. Gerontologist 2001;41:449-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/41.4.449
144. Petterson IL, Donnersvard HA, Lagerstram M, Toomingas A. Evaluation of an intervention programme based on empowerment for eldercare nursing staff. Work Stress 2006;20:353-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02678370601070489
145. McLellan H, Bateman H, Bailey P. The place of 360 degree appraisal within a team approach to professional development. J Interprof Care 2005;19:137-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13561820400024290
146. Gethin-Jones S. Focus on the micro-relationship in the delivery of care. Br J Healthc Assist 2013;7:452-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjha.2013.7.9.452
147. Vail L, Bosley S, Petrova M, Dale J. Healthcare assistants in general practice: a qualitative study of their experiences. Prim Health Care Res Dev 2011;12:29-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1463423610000204
148. Cooper C, Anscombe J, Avenell J, McLean F, Morris J. A National Evaluation of Community Support Officers. Home Office; 2006.
149. Nelson S, Wild D, Szczepura A. The forgotten sector: workforce development in residential care for older people. Nurs Residential Care 2009;11:200-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/nrec.2009.11.4.41063
150. Cowan DT, Roberts JD, Fitzpatrick JM, While AE, Baldwin J. The approaches to learning of support workers employed in the care home sector: an evaluation study. Nurse Educ Today 2004;24:98-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.002
151. Arblaster G, Streather C, Hugill L, McKenzie M, Missenden J. A training programme for healthcare support workers. Nurs Stand 2004;18:33-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/ns2004.07.18.43.33.c3640
152. Parks SM, Haines C, Foreman D, McKinstry E, Maxwell TL. Evaluation of an educational program for long-term care nursing assistants. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2005;6:61-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2004.12.001
153. Kuske B, Luck T, Hanns S, Matschinger H, Angermeyer MC, Behrens J. et al. Training in dementia care: a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a training program for nursing home staff in Germany. Int Psychogeriatr 2009;21:295-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610208008387
154. Chapman A, Law S. Bridging the gap: an innovative dementia learning program for healthcare assistants in hospital wards using facilitator-led discussions. Int Psychogeriatr 2009;21:S58-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610209008680
155. McCormack B. A conceptual framework for person-centred practice with older people. Int J Nurs Pract 2003;9:202-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-172X.2003.00423.x
156. Yalden J, McCormack B, O’Connor M, Hardy S. Transforming end of life care using practice development: an arts-informed approach in residential aged care. Int Pract Dev J 2013;3:1-18.
157. McCormack B, Dewing J, Breslin L, Tobin C, Manning M, Coyne-Nevin A. et al.. The Implementation of a Model of Person-Centred Practice in Older Person Settings. Final Report. Dublin: National Council for the Continuing Professional Development of Nursing and Midwifery and Health Service Executive; 2010.
158. Lawton MP, Nahemow L, Eisdorfer C, Lawton MP. Ecology and the Aging Process. The Psychology of Adult Development and Aging. American Psychological Association; 1973. pp. 619-74. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10044-020
159. Kanter RM. Men and Women of the Corporation. 2nd edn. ed. New York, NY: Basic Books; 1993.
160. Spreitzer GM. Rogelberg SR. Empowerment. Encyclopedia of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2006. pp. 202-6.
161. Webster J, Coats E, Noble G. Enabling dignity in care through practice development with older people. Pract Dev Health Care 2009;8:5-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pdh.272
162. Noelker LS, Ejaz FK. Training direct care workers for person-centered care. Public Policy Aging Report 2005;15:17-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ppar/15.4.17
163. McCormack B, Wright J. Achieving dignified care for older people through practice development: a systematic approach. Nursing Times Research 1999;4:340-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/136140969900400504
164. Aubry F, Etheridge F, Couturier Y. Facilitating change among nursing assistants in long term care. Online J Issues Nurs 2012;18:http://dx.doi.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol18No01PPT01
165. Latta LE, Ross J. Exploring the impact of palliative care education for care assistants employed in residential aged care facilities in Otago, New Zealand. Sites 2011;7:30-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.11157/sites-vol7iss2id155
166. Goodridge D, Johnston P, Thomson M. Impact of a nursing assistant training program on job performance, attitudes, and relationships with residents. Educ Gerontol 1997;23:37-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0360127970230104
167. Ruckdeschel K, Van Haitsma K. A workshop for nursing home staff: recognizing and responding to their own and residents’ emotions. Gerontol Geriatr Educ 2004;24:39-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J021v24n03_04
168. Howatson-Jones L, Thurgate C, Graber M, Harnett CM, Thompson JS, Jordan DA. Biographical learning: a process for promoting person-centredness in nursing. Int Pract Dev J 2013;3:
169. Medvene LJ, Lann-Wolcott H. An exploratory study of nurse aides communication behaviours: giving positive regard as a strategy. Int J Older People Nurs 2010;5:41-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-3743.2009.00183.x
170. Brown J, Nolan M, Davies S, Nolan J, Keady J. Transforming students’ views of gerontological nursing: realising the potential of ‘enriched’ environments of learning and care: a multi-method longitudinal study. Int J Nurs Stud 2008;45:1214-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2007.07.002
171. Manley K, Sanders K, Cardiff S, Webster J. Effective workplace culture: the attributes, enabling factors and consequences of a new concept. Int Pract Dev J 2011;1:1-29.
172. Noelker L, Ejaz F, Menne H, Jones J. The impact of stress and support on nursing assistant satisfaction with supervision. J Appl Gerontol 2006;25:307-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0733464806290935
173. Bailey S, Scales K, Lloyd J, Schneider J, Jones R. The emotional labour of health-care assistants in inpatient dementia care. Ageing Soc 2015;35:246-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X13000573
174. Knowles MS. Andragogy in Action. 1st edn. ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 1984.
175. Benner P. From Novice to Expert, Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company; 1984.
176. Dreyfus SE. The five-stage model of adult skill acquisition. Bull Sci Technol Soc 2004;24:177-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0270467604264992
177. Manley K, Hardy S, Titchen A, Garbett R, McCormack B. Changing Patients’ Worlds through Nursing Practice Expertise. A Royal College of Nursing Research Report, 1998–2004. London: Royal College of Nursing; 2005.
178. Hardy S, Titchen A, McCormack B, Manley K. Revealing Nursing Expertise through Practitioner Enquiry. 1st edn. ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
179. Cerasoli CP, Nicklin JM, Ford MT. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: a 40-year meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 2014;140:980-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035661
180. Kontos PC, Poland BD. Mapping new theoretical and methodological terrain for knowledge translation: contributions from critical realism and the arts. Implement Sci 2009;4:1-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-4-1
181. Greenhalgh T, Robert G, Macfarlane F, Bate P, Kyriakidou O. Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: systematic review and recommendations. Milbank Q 2004;82:581-629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0887-378X.2004.00325.x
182. Iles V, Sutherland K. Organisational Change: A Review for Health Care Managers, Professionals and Researchers. London: National Co-ordinating Centre for NHS Service Delivery and Organisation; 2001.
183. McCormack B, Kitson A, Harvey G, Rycroft-Malone J, Titchen A, Seers K. Getting evidence into practice: the meaning of context. J Adv Nurs 2002;38:94-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2002.02150.x
184. McCormack B, McCance T. Person-Centred Nursing: Theory and Practice. 1st edn. ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444390506
185. Baker R, Camosso-Stefinovic J, Gillies G, Shaw EJ, Cheater F, Flottorp S. et al. Tailored interventions to address determinants of practice. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;4:CD005470-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd005470.pub3
186. Lewin K. Defining the ‘field at a given time’. Psychol Rev 1943;50:292-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0062738
187. Straus S, Tetroe J, Graham ID. Knowledge Translation in Health Care: Moving from Evidence to Practice. Wiley-Blackwell and BMJ Books; 2009. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444311747
188. Van de Ven AH. Engaged Scholarship: A Guide for Organizational and Social Research. Oxford University Press; 2007.
189. Rycroft-Malone J, Seers K, Titchen A, Harvey G, Kitson A, McCormack B. What counts as evidence in evidence-based practice?. J Adv Nurs 2004;47:81-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03068.x
190. Carpenter J, Dickinson H. Interprofessional Education and Training. Bristol: Policy Press; 2008.
191. Bate P, Robert G. Experience-based design: from redesigning the system around the patient to co-designing services with the patient. Qual Saf Health Care 2006;15:307-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2005.016527
192. Stame N. Theory-based evaluation and types of complexity. Evaluation 2004;10:58-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1356389004043135
193. Anderson P. Perspective: complexity theory and organization science. Organ Sci 1999;10:216-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.10.3.216
194. McCormack B TA. Critical creativity: melding, exploding, blending. Educ Action Res 2006;14:239-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09650790600718118
195. Pawson R, Greenhalgh T, Harvey G, Walshe K. Realist review – a new method of systematic review designed for complex policy interventions. J Health Serv Res Policy 2005;10:(Suppl. 1):21-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/1355819054308530
196. Noelker L, Ejaz F, Menne H, Bagaka J. Factors affecting frontline workers’ satisfaction with supervision. J Aging Health 2009;21:85-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0898264308328641
197. Parry R, Vass C. Training and assessment of physiotherapy assistants. Physiotherapy 1997;83:33-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9406(05)66108-1
198. Ryan T, Nolan M, Enderby P, Reid D. Part of the family: sources of job satisfaction amongst a group of community-based dementia care workers. Health Soc Care Community 2004;12:111-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0966-0410.2004.00471.x
199. Godfrey A.. What impact does training have on the care received by older people in residential homes?. Soc Work Educ 2000;19:55-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026154700114658
200. Sutherland J. The PCSO Review – An Evaluation of the Role, Value and Establishment of Police Community Support Officers ithin Cambridgeshire Constabulary. Cambridgeshire Constabulary; 2014. URL: www.cambs-police.co.uk/about/foi/policies/The%20PCSO%20Review%20Redacted%20Version.PDF (accessed 29 February 2016).
201. Jolly A, Evans S. Teacher assistants move to the front of the class: job-embedded learning pays off in student achievement. J Staff Develop 2005;26:8-13.
202. Groom B. Building relationships for learning: the developing role of the teaching assistant. Support Learn 2006;21:199-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9604.2006.00432.x
203. Collins J, Simco N. Teaching assistants reflect: the way forward?. Reflect Pract 2006;7:197-214.
204. Righter B. Training for teaching assistants. Eng Educ 1987;78:135-6.
205. Santo Pietro M. Training nursing assistants to communicate effectively with persons with Alzheimer’s Disease: a call for action. Alzheimers Care Q 2002;3:157-64.
13views this month
0downloads this month