Professor Steve Tong


NameProfessor Steve Tong
Job titleProfessor & School Director of Research and Enterprise
Research instituteSchool of Law, Criminal Justice and Policing

Research outputs

Women police leaders in Europe: a tale of prejudice and patronage

Tong, S. and Silvestri, M. 2020. Women police leaders in Europe: a tale of prejudice and patronage. European Journal of Criminology.

Police learning in the context of change and diversity

Tong, S. and Green. T 2019. Police learning in the context of change and diversity. Policing: A Journal for Policy and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1093/police/paz069

Professionalizing criminal investigation: an examination of an early attempt to support specialization in criminal investigation

Tong, S. and O'Neill, M. 2019. Professionalizing criminal investigation: an examination of an early attempt to support specialization in criminal investigation. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1093/police/paz010

The Schengen evaluation mechanism: exploring the views of experts in the field of police cooperation

Kaasik, J. and Tong, S. 2019. The Schengen evaluation mechanism: exploring the views of experts in the field of police cooperation. European Law Enforcement Research Bulletin. Winter (18), pp. 1-18.

Lesson-learning not blame: realistic or optimistic?

Heaton, R. and Tong, S. 2019. Lesson-learning not blame: realistic or optimistic? Police Professional.

Kent and Medway: delivering a Brexit border: policing, security, freight and customs

Hadfield, A., Tong, S. and Centre for European Studies and the Canterbury Centre for Policing Research, Canterbury Christ Church University 2018. Kent and Medway: delivering a Brexit border: policing, security, freight and customs. Canterbury Canterbury Christ Church University.

Operational risk, omissions and liability in policing

Heaton, R., Bryant, R. and Tong, S. 2018. Operational risk, omissions and liability in policing. The Police Journal.

Police and higher education: prospects and challenges II workshop

Tong, S. 2017. Police and higher education: prospects and challenges II workshop.

Sink or swim: a cast study of detective training

Tong, S. 2017. Sink or swim: a cast study of detective training.

Mediating serious crime: an analysis of victim and prisoner mediation

Tong, S., Waters, B., Bryant, R., Williams, E. and Norman, J. 2017. Mediating serious crime: an analysis of victim and prisoner mediation.

Professionalising policing: seeking viable and sustainable approaches to police education and learning

Tong, S. 2017. Professionalising policing: seeking viable and sustainable approaches to police education and learning. European Police Science and Research Bulletin - Special Conference Edition. Summer (2017), pp. 171-178.

‘Set in stone?’

Heaton, R. and Tong, S. 2017. ‘Set in stone?’. Police Professional.

Education and the police professionalisation agenda: a perspective from England and Wales

Tong, S. and Hallenberg, K. 2017. Education and the police professionalisation agenda: a perspective from England and Wales. in: Rogers, C. and Frevel, B. (ed.) Higher Police Education: An international perspective Springer.

Professionalising criminal investigation – an examination of early attempts to professionalise detectives in the United Kingdom

Tong, S. 2017. Professionalising criminal investigation – an examination of early attempts to professionalise detectives in the United Kingdom.

Evidence-based policing, professionalization and challenges to policing in Britain

Tong, S. 2017. Evidence-based policing, professionalization and challenges to policing in Britain.

Art, craft and science of policing

Tong, S. 2017. Art, craft and science of policing.

Conducting research into European policing'

Tong, S. 2017. Conducting research into European policing'.

Learning from mistakes? policing under siege: an examination of high profile criticisms of policing and potential responses

Tong, S. 2016. Learning from mistakes? policing under siege: an examination of high profile criticisms of policing and potential responses.

Professionalising policing: challenges in the role of education

Tong, S. 2016. Professionalising policing: challenges in the role of education.

Police reform workshop: professionalisation through education

Tong, S. 2016. Police reform workshop: professionalisation through education. European Police Research Institutes Collaboration (EPiC) Annual Conference. Cardiff University

The importance of context and cognitive agency in developing police knowledge: going beyond the police science discourse

Wood, D., Cockcroft, T., Tong, S. and Bryant, R. 2017. The importance of context and cognitive agency in developing police knowledge: going beyond the police science discourse. The Police Journal. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032258X17696101

Evidence-based policing: from effectiveness to cost-effectiveness

Tong, S. and Heaton, R. 2016. Evidence-based policing: from effectiveness to cost-effectiveness. Policing: A Journal for Policy and Practice. 10 (1), pp. 60-70. https://doi.org/doi:10.1093/police/pav030

History of criminal investigation

Tong, S. 2016. History of criminal investigation.

Training the effective detective: a case-study examining the role of training in learning to be a detective

Tong, S. 2005. Training the effective detective: a case-study examining the role of training in learning to be a detective. PhD Thesis University of Cambridge Institute of Criminology

Researching sexual violence

Williams, E. and Stanko, B. 2016. Researching sexual violence. in: Brunger, M., Tong, S. and Martin, D. (ed.) Policing Research: Taking Lessons from Practice Routledge.

Policing and mental health

Massey, K. 2015. Policing and mental health. in: Brunger, M., Tong, S. and Martin, D. (ed.) Introduction to policing research. Taking lessons from practice Abingdon, Oxon Routledge.

Researching professional development

Wood, D. and Bryant, R. 2015. Researching professional development. in: Brunger, M., Tong, S. and Martin, D. (ed.) Introduction to policing research. Taking lessons from practice. London Routledge. pp. 87-99

Conclusion: challenges and changes in police research

Tong, S. and Martin, D. 2015. Conclusion: challenges and changes in police research. in: Brunger, M., Tong, S. and Martin, D. (ed.) Introduction to Policing Research: Taking Lessons From Practice London Routledge. pp. 217-223

From the briefing room to the class room: the pedagogical value of researching police elites

Tong, S., Brunger, M., Caless, B. and Gilbert, P. 2015. From the briefing room to the class room: the pedagogical value of researching police elites. in: Brunger, M., Tong, S. and Martin, D. (ed.) Introduction to Policing Research: Taking Lesson From Practice London Routledge. pp. 137-148

Introduction to policing research

Brunger, M., Tong, S. and Martin, D. 2015. Introduction to policing research. in: Brunger, M., Tong, S. and Martin, D. (ed.) Introduction to Policing Research: Taking Lessons From Practice London Routledge. pp. 1-5

Introduction to policing research: taking lessons from practice

Tong, S. Brunger, M., Tong, S. and Martin, D. (ed.) 2015. Introduction to policing research: taking lessons from practice. London Routledge.

Watching the detectives: researching investigative practice

Hallenberg, K., O'Neill, M. and Tong, S. 2015. Watching the detectives: researching investigative practice. in: Brunger, M., Tong, S. and Martin, D. (ed.) Introduction to Policing Research: Taking Lessons From Practice London Routledge. pp. 101-117

Women and police leadership: a European insight

Tong, S. and Silvestri, M. 2015. Women and police leadership: a European insight.

Blackstone's handbook for policing students 2016

Graca, S., Lawton-Barrett, K., O'Neill, M., Tong, S., Underwood, R. and Wood, D. Bryant, R. and Bryant, S. (ed.) 2015. Blackstone's handbook for policing students 2016. Oxford Oxford University Press.

Leading policing in Europe: an empirical study of police leadership

Caless, B. and Tong, S. 2015. Leading policing in Europe: an empirical study of police leadership. Bristol Policy Press.

Leadership policing in Europe: an empirical study on police leadership

Caless, B. and Tong, S. 2015. Leadership policing in Europe: an empirical study on police leadership. European Police Science and Research Bulletin. Summer (12), pp. 13-17.

Police education in England and Wales: a changing landscape

Tong, S. 2014. Police education in England and Wales: a changing landscape.

Evolving partnership and collaboration

Tong, S. 2013. Evolving partnership and collaboration.

Mediating serious crime: an analysis of adult prison restorative justice mediation

Bryant, R., Tong, S., Waters, B., Williams, E. and Norman, J. 2014. Mediating serious crime: an analysis of adult prison restorative justice mediation. London Nuffield Foundation.

Police training and education: past, present and future

Bryant, R., Cockcroft, T., Tong, S. and Wood, D. 2013. Police training and education: past, present and future. in: Brown, J. (ed.) The Future of Policing London Routledge.

Investigative decision making: missing people and sexual offences, crossroads to an uncertain future

Tong, S., Massey, K. and Alys, L. 2013. Investigative decision making: missing people and sexual offences, crossroads to an uncertain future. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling. 10 (1). https://doi.org/10.1002/jip.1382

Gender and police leadership: time for a paradigm shift?

Silvestri, M., Tong, S. and Brown, J. 2013. Gender and police leadership: time for a paradigm shift? International Journal of Police Science and Management. 15 (1), pp. 61-72. https://doi.org/10.1350/ijps.2013.15.1.303

Privatisation of agencies in the public sector

Tong, S. 2013. Privatisation of agencies in the public sector.

Investigative decision making: missing people and sexual offences, crossroads to an uncertain future

Alys, L., Massey, K. and Tong, S. 2012. Investigative decision making: missing people and sexual offences, crossroads to an uncertain future.

Graduate Police Officers: releasing the potential for pre-employment university programmes for aspiring police officers

Tong, S. 2010. Graduate Police Officers: releasing the potential for pre-employment university programmes for aspiring police officers.

Training the effective detective: report of recommendations

Tong, S. 2005. Training the effective detective: report of recommendations.

Watching the detectives

Tong, S. 2000. Watching the detectives.

Investigating effectiveness: competing ideologies and police performance management

Tong, S. 2002. Investigating effectiveness: competing ideologies and police performance management.

'Art, craft & science: contemporary detective practice’

Tong, S. 2010. 'Art, craft & science: contemporary detective practice’.

Police leadership: an historical account of the development of police leaders

Caless, B. and Tong, S. 2011. Police leadership: an historical account of the development of police leaders.

Restorative justice in prisons: a presentation to Kent Probation Service victim seminar

O'Mahoney, J. and Tong, S. 2011. Restorative justice in prisons: a presentation to Kent Probation Service victim seminar.

Skills and abilities in crime investigation: the investigative journalist versus the detective

Poyser, S. and Tong, S. 2011. Skills and abilities in crime investigation: the investigative journalist versus the detective.

Criminal investigation and higher education: a crossroads to an uncertain future

Murphy, R., Tong, S. and Underwood, R. 2011. Criminal investigation and higher education: a crossroads to an uncertain future.

Police research and interviewing police elites

Tong, S. 2011. Police research and interviewing police elites.

The science of criminal investigation

Tong, S. 2011. The science of criminal investigation.

The detective past and present: an examination of an evolving profession

Tong, S. 2011. The detective past and present: an examination of an evolving profession.

Policing research in an age of austerity

Brunger, M. and Tong, S. 2012. Policing research in an age of austerity.

Criminal investigation and higher education: a crossroads to an uncertain future

Massey, K. and Tong, S. 2012. Criminal investigation and higher education: a crossroads to an uncertain future.

ASC 547 higher education and policing. Report submitted to the Higher Education Academy Social Sciences Cluster

Bryant, R., Bryant, S., Tong, S. and Wood, D. 2012. ASC 547 higher education and policing. Report submitted to the Higher Education Academy Social Sciences Cluster. Higher Education Academy.

Submission to the Home Affairs Committee inquiry into leadership and standards in the police. (Written evidence.)

Bryant, R., Tong, S. and Wood, D. 2012. Submission to the Home Affairs Committee inquiry into leadership and standards in the police. (Written evidence.). London Home Office.

An appropriate space: chief officers and police accountability

Caless, B. and Tong, S. 2011. An appropriate space: chief officers and police accountability. Police Practice and Research. 14 (1). https://doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2011.645613

The more serious the offence, the more powerful the effect? An evaluation of victim-offender mediation in a prison setting. Report for the European Forum for Restorative Justice, The 6th Biennial Forum Proceedings 2010.

Tong, S. and O'Mahoney, J. 2011. The more serious the offence, the more powerful the effect? An evaluation of victim-offender mediation in a prison setting. Report for the European Forum for Restorative Justice, The 6th Biennial Forum Proceedings 2010.

Confessions of a back seat detective: an ethnography of detective training and practice

Tong, S. 2008. Confessions of a back seat detective: an ethnography of detective training and practice.

In need of professionalisation: the case for pre-employment training and education for police officers in the UK

Tong, S. 2008. In need of professionalisation: the case for pre-employment training and education for police officers in the UK.

Developments in initial police training: a university perspective

Tong, S. 2008. Developments in initial police training: a university perspective.

Applying for your first academic job

Tong, S. 2009. Applying for your first academic job.

Conducting research interviews in a policing context

Tong, S. 2009. Conducting research interviews in a policing context.

Initial police training: challenges and developments in the UK

Phipps, J., Tong, S. and Wood, D. 2007. Initial police training: challenges and developments in the UK.

Graduate police officers: releasing the potential for pre-employment university programmes for aspiring officers

Tong, S. and Wood, D. 2011. Graduate police officers: releasing the potential for pre-employment university programmes for aspiring officers. The Police Journal. 84 (1), pp. 69-74. https://doi.org/10.1350/pojo.2011.84.1.513

Critical issues in rape investigation: a UK perspective

Tong, S., Horvath, M. and Williams, E. 2011. Critical issues in rape investigation: a UK perspective. The Journal of Criminal Justice Research. 1 (2), pp. 1-18.

Police discretion: a British perspective

Tong, S. 2011. Police discretion: a British perspective. in: Palmiotto, M. and Unnithan, N. (ed.) Policing and Society: A Global Approach New York Cengage Learning.

Adult prisoner victim-offender mediation: the Kent experience

O'Mahoney, J. and Tong, S. 2010. Adult prisoner victim-offender mediation: the Kent experience. Resolution: News from the Restorative Justice Council. 34, p. 8.

Professionalising investigation

Tong, S. 2009. Professionalising investigation. in: Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvarth, M. (ed.) Understanding Criminal Investigation Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 197-216

Assessing performance: quantity or quality?

Tong, S. 2009. Assessing performance: quantity or quality? in: Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvarth, M. (ed.) Understanding Criminal Investigation Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 135-171

Introduction: a brief history of criminal investigation

Tong, S. 2009. Introduction: a brief history of criminal investigation. in: Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvarth, M. (ed.) Understanding Criminal Investigation Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 1-12

Understanding criminal investigation

Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvath, M. Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvarth, M. (ed.) 2009. Understanding criminal investigation. Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell.

Future challenges in criminal investigation

Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvath, M. 2009. Future challenges in criminal investigation. in: Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvarth, M. (ed.) Understanding Criminal Investigation Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 217-222

Criminal investigation in context

Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvath, M. 2009. Criminal investigation in context. in: Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvarth, M. (ed.) Understanding Criminal Investigation Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 171-196

Forms of reasoning and the analysis of intelligence

Bryant, R. 2009. Forms of reasoning and the analysis of intelligence. in: Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvarth, M. (ed.) Understanding Criminal Investigation Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 35-68

Theories of criminal investigation

Bryant, R. 2009. Theories of criminal investigation. in: Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvarth, M. (ed.) Understanding Criminal Investigation Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 13-34

Interim report: An evaluation of adult prison RJ (Restorative Justice) mediation

Bryant, R., O'Mahoney, J., Waters, B. and Tong, S. 2009. Interim report: An evaluation of adult prison RJ (Restorative Justice) mediation. Canterbury, Kent, UK Canterbury Christ Church University.

Discretion and decision making

Tong, S. and Wood, D. 2009. Discretion and decision making. The Police Online Knowledge Area (POLKA).

The future of initial police training: a university perspective

Wood, D. and Tong, S. 2009. The future of initial police training: a university perspective. International Journal of Police Science and Management. 11 (3), pp. 294-305. https://doi.org/10.1350/ijps.2009.11.3.131

Interagency policing

Tong, S. 2008. Interagency policing. in: Newburn, T. and Neyroud, P. (ed.) Dictionary of Policing Abingdon, UK Willan Publishing. pp. 148-149

Art, craft and science of detective work

Tong, S. and Bowling, B. 2006. Art, craft and science of detective work. The Police Journal. 79 (4), pp. 323-330. https://doi.org/10.1350/pojo.2006.79.4.323
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