Primary school mentalisation-based art therapy (Primary-smART): a Person-based approach optimisation study

Journal article


Kavermann, S., Holttum, S., Lloyd, B, Zubala, A., Bourne, J. and Hackett, S. 2024. Primary school mentalisation-based art therapy (Primary-smART): a Person-based approach optimisation study. International Journal of Art Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1080/17454832.2024.2339843
AuthorsKavermann, S., Holttum, S., Lloyd, B, Zubala, A., Bourne, J. and Hackett, S.
Abstract

Background
The children’s mental health crisis in the UK continues to worsen and more and more schools are employing art therapists (ATs) to provide services for children experiencing social, emotional, and mental health (SEMH) difficulties. Although some studies have found indications of positive SEMH outcomes following art therapy, the evidence-base is still emerging. The initial development of a formalised art therapy intervention called Primary-smART included children, teachers, parents/carers, and art therapists. Indications from exploratory research showed this intervention could be helpful for children experiencing SEMH difficulties.

Aims
This study aimed to optimise a Primary-smART toolkit to ensure it is acceptable, engaging and persuasive for ATs in preparation for a future evaluation study in primary schools with children.

Methods
The Person-Based Approach (PBA) to intervention development was used to develop Primary-smART. In this study, feedback gained through online interviews with ATs was used to refine and optimise the toolkit.

Results
The 18 ATs who participated in this study perceived Primary-smART as acceptable overall. However, ATs during Rounds 1, 2, and 3 had important concerns which may have resulted in barriers to using Primary-smART. Seven out of eight main sections were modified and no new significant barriers were fed back by Round 4.

Conclusions
This study was successful in refining and optimising the Primary-smART toolkit. Results show that PBA methods enabled the research team to meet the study's aims.

Implications for practice/policy/future research
Future evaluation studies are now needed to test the clinical, carbon and cost effectiveness of Primary-smART.

KeywordsArt therapy; Children; Schools; Mentalisation-based; Intervention development; Person-based approach
Year2024
JournalInternational Journal of Art Therapy
PublisherTaylor & Francis
ISSN1745-4840
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1080/17454832.2024.2339843
Official URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17454832.2024.2339843
Publication dates
Print18 Apr 2024
Publication process dates
Accepted02 Apr 2024
Deposited09 May 2024
Output statusPublished
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Small-scale placement-based research in clinical psychology training: the role of qualitative methods
Holttum, S. and Lavender, T. 2001. Small-scale placement-based research in clinical psychology training: the role of qualitative methods. Clinical Psychology. 5, pp. 27-31.
Express yourself? Research in brief
Holttum, S. 1998. Express yourself? Research in brief. The Psychologist. 11 (6), pp. 296-296.
Is abstinence from alcohol dangerous? Research in brief
Holttum, S. 1998. Is abstinence from alcohol dangerous? Research in brief. The Psychologist. 11 (4), p. 186.
An investigation of the impact of training social workers and their managers
Duffy, T., Holttum, S. and Keegan, M. 1998. An investigation of the impact of training social workers and their managers. Alcoholism. 34 (1-2), pp. 93-104.
Personality style, psychological adaptation and expectations of trainee clinical psychologists
Brooks, J., Holttum, S. and Lavender, T. 2002. Personality style, psychological adaptation and expectations of trainee clinical psychologists. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. 9 (4), pp. 253-270. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.318
Determinants of quality of life in black African women with HIV living in London
Onwumere, J., Holttum, S. and Hirst, F. 2002. Determinants of quality of life in black African women with HIV living in London. Psychology, Health and Medicine. 7 (1), pp. 61-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548500120101568
The relationship between acceptance and cognitive representations of pain in participants of a pain management programme
Rankin, H. and Holttum, S. 2003. The relationship between acceptance and cognitive representations of pain in participants of a pain management programme. Psychology, Health and Medicine. 8 (3), pp. 329-334. https://doi.org/10.1080/1354850031000135768
Factors influencing levels of research activity in clinical psychologists: a new model
Holttum, S. and Goble, L. 2006. Factors influencing levels of research activity in clinical psychologists: a new model. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. 13 (5), pp. 339-351. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.501
Perceived improvements in service user involvement in two clinical psychology training courses
Holttum, S. and Hayward, M. 2010. Perceived improvements in service user involvement in two clinical psychology training courses. Psychology Learning & Teaching. 9 (1), pp. 16-24. https://doi.org/10.2304/plat.2010.9.1.16
WAIS III UK: an extension of the UK comparability study
Wycherley, R., Lavender, T., Holttum, S., Crawford, J. and Mockler, D. 2005. WAIS III UK: an extension of the UK comparability study. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 44 (2), pp. 279-288. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466505X29440
Children's explanations of aggressive incidents at school within an attribution framework
Joscelyne, T. and Holttum, S. 2006. Children's explanations of aggressive incidents at school within an attribution framework. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 11 (2), pp. 104-110. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2006.00397.x
How do women experience myocardial infarction? A qualitative exploration of illness perceptions, adjustment and coping
White, J., Hunter, M. and Holttum, S. 2007. How do women experience myocardial infarction? A qualitative exploration of illness perceptions, adjustment and coping. Psychology, Health and Medicine. 12 (3), pp. 278-288. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548500600971288
Reflections on involving service users and carers in clinical psychology training
Holttum, S. 2008. Reflections on involving service users and carers in clinical psychology training. The Higher Education Academy Psychology Network Newsletter. 48, pp. 2-3.
Perceived changes associated with autogenic training for anxiety: a grounded theory study
Yurdakul, L., Holttum, S. and Bowden, A. 2009. Perceived changes associated with autogenic training for anxiety: a grounded theory study. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory Research and Practice. 82 (4), pp. 403-419. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608309X444749
Comparative clinical feasibility study of three tools for delivery of cognitive behavioural therapy for mild to moderate depression and anxiety, provided on a self-help basis
Pittaway, S., Cupitt, C., Palmer, D., Arowobusoye, N., Milne, R., Holttum, S., Pezet, R. and Patrik, H. 2009. Comparative clinical feasibility study of three tools for delivery of cognitive behavioural therapy for mild to moderate depression and anxiety, provided on a self-help basis. Mental Health in Family Medicine. 6 (3), pp. 145-154.