Processes of change in school-based art therapy with children: a systematic qualitative study

Journal article


Deboys, R., Holttum, S. and Wright, K. 2016. Processes of change in school-based art therapy with children: a systematic qualitative study. International Journal of Art Therapy. 21 (3), pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/17454832.2016.1262882
AuthorsDeboys, R., Holttum, S. and Wright, K.
Abstract

Although theoretical processes of art therapy with children have been suggested, they have lacked a systematic research basis. This systematic qualitative study explored children’s school-based one-to-one art therapy in order to create a theory of change. Across two primary schools, 14 children were interviewed individually, as were their parents, teachers and art therapists (total N = 40). All children had received art therapy within the previous 12 months. Children completed an art activity to aid the interview process. Interview data were analysed using grounded theory methodology. The analysis generated a preliminary model with three components. ‘Component 1—school context’ highlights the systemic nature of art therapy as well as its mystique to those not directly involved. ‘Component 2—core model’ describes art therapy as individualised and child-centred. Art-doing and making were considered central to children’s expression and developing understandings. ‘Component 3—change and no change’ describes the connection between identifying therapy aims and perceiving change. Recommendations are that art therapy be considered for children struggling to verbalise their difficulties; that therapists focus on therapeutic experiences being fun and enjoyable for the child, as well as embedded within the child’s system; and lastly that clear target problems are identified at the start of therapy.

KeywordsArt therapy, primary school, children, grounded theory, qualitative
Year2016
JournalInternational Journal of Art Therapy
Journal citation21 (3), pp. 1-14
PublisherTaylor & Francis
ISSN1745-4832
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1080/17454832.2016.1262882
Publication dates
Online22 Dec 2016
Publication process dates
Deposited05 Jan 2017
Accepted11 Nov 2016
Accepted author manuscript
Output statusPublished
Permalink -

https://repository.canterbury.ac.uk/item/87zzy/processes-of-change-in-school-based-art-therapy-with-children-a-systematic-qualitative-study

Download files

  • 8
    total views
  • 2
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

BAAT Guidelines on Art Therapy for people with a psychosis-related diagnosis
Holttum, S. 2020. BAAT Guidelines on Art Therapy for people with a psychosis-related diagnosis. UK British Assocition of Art Therapists.
Primary-school-based art therapy: A mixed methods comparison study on children’s classroom learning
Holttum, S. and McDonald, A. 2020. Primary-school-based art therapy: A mixed methods comparison study on children’s classroom learning . International Journal of Art Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1080/17454832.2020.1760906.
Art therapists with experience of mental distress: implications for art therapy training and practice
Huet, V., Holttum, S. and British Association of Art Therapists 2016. Art therapists with experience of mental distress: implications for art therapy training and practice. International Journal of Art Therapy. 21 (3), pp. 95-103. https://doi.org/10.1080/17454832.2016.1219755
Primary-school-based art therapy: exploratory study of changes in children’s social, emotional and mental health
McDonald, A., Holttum, S. and Drey, N. 2019. Primary-school-based art therapy: exploratory study of changes in children’s social, emotional and mental health. International Journal of Art Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1080/17454832.2019.1634115
Ethnic minority membership and depression in the UK and America
Holttum, S. 2016. Ethnic minority membership and depression in the UK and America. Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 21 (1), pp. 5-12. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-12-2016-0037
Research watch: is social inclusion for service users increased when mental health professionals “come out” as service users?
Holttum, S. 2017. Research watch: is social inclusion for service users increased when mental health professionals “come out” as service users? Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 21 (2), pp. 73-79. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-02-2017-0006
Mental health of people in the military depends on social inclusion: why not for all of us?
Holttum, S. 2017. Mental health of people in the military depends on social inclusion: why not for all of us? Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 21 (4), pp. 201-207. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-06-2017-0027
Social exclusion prevents us understanding the role of sleep in psychosis and “schizophrenia”
Holttum, S. 2017. Social exclusion prevents us understanding the role of sleep in psychosis and “schizophrenia”. Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 21 (5), pp. 252-258. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-09-2017-0036
Group art therapy: supporting social inclusion through an ancient practice?
Holttum, S. 2017. Group art therapy: supporting social inclusion through an ancient practice? Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 22 (1), pp. 6-12. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-12-2017-0051
Inclusion of family and parenthood in mental health recovery
Holttum, S. 2018. Inclusion of family and parenthood in mental health recovery. Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 22 (3), pp. 114-120. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-04-2018-0014
Pets, animal-assisted therapy and social inclusion
Holttum, S. 2018. Pets, animal-assisted therapy and social inclusion. Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 22 (2), pp. 65-71. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-02-2018-0004
Now they're listening: involvement in clinical psychology training
Lea, L., Holttum, S., Butters, V., Byrne, D., Cable, H., Morris, D., Richardson, R., Riley, L. and Warren, H. 2018. Now they're listening: involvement in clinical psychology training. Mental Health and Social Inclusion. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-07-2018-0027
Research watch: men’s social inclusion and suicide prevention
Holttum, S. 2018. Research watch: men’s social inclusion and suicide prevention. Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 22 (4), pp. 167-173. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-06-2018-0021
Research watch: therapists’ working conditions and their implications for service users’ social inclusion
Holttum, S. 2018. Research watch: therapists’ working conditions and their implications for service users’ social inclusion. Mental Health and Social Inclusion. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-11-2018-0038
Research Watch (2)
Holttum, S. 2011. Research Watch (2). Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 15 (2), pp. 49-53. https://doi.org/10.1108/20428301111140877
The Birds Nest Drawing and accompanying stories in the assessment of attachment security
Young Yoon, J., Betts, D. and Holttum, S. 2019. The Birds Nest Drawing and accompanying stories in the assessment of attachment security. International Journal of Art Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1080/17454832.2019.1697306
Research watch: mental health services supporting social inclusion
Holttum, S. 2019. Research watch: mental health services supporting social inclusion. Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 23 (4), pp. 149-155. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-08-2019-0022
Processes in an experience-based co-design project with family carers in community mental health
Chisholm, L., Holttum, S. and Springham, N. 2018. Processes in an experience-based co-design project with family carers in community mental health. SAGE Open. 8 (4), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018809220
Evaluation of arts based courses within a UK recovery college for people with mental health challenges
Stevens, J., Butterfield, C., Whittington, A. and Holttum, S. 2018. Evaluation of arts based courses within a UK recovery college for people with mental health challenges. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061170
An exploration of young people’s narratives of hope following experience of psychosis
Bonnett, V., Berry, C., Meddings, S. and Holttum, S. 2018. An exploration of young people’s narratives of hope following experience of psychosis. Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches. 10 (2). https://doi.org/10.1080/17522439.2018.1460393
‘I can see it and I can feel it, but I can’t put my finger on it’: A Foucauldian discourse analysis of experiences of relating on psychiatric inpatient units
Cheetham, J., Holttum, S., Springham, N. and Butt, K. 2017. ‘I can see it and I can feel it, but I can’t put my finger on it’: A Foucauldian discourse analysis of experiences of relating on psychiatric inpatient units. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory Research and Practice. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12162
Mindfulness practice following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
Jones, F., Langdon, S., Hutton, J. and Holttum, S. 2017. Mindfulness practice following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.
Art therapy-based groups for work-related stress with staff in health and social care: an exploratory study
Huet, V. and Holttum, S. 2016. Art therapy-based groups for work-related stress with staff in health and social care: an exploratory study. The Arts in Psychotherapy. 50, pp. 46-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2016.06.003
Dyslexia: is it genetic and what does this mean for social inclusion?
Holttum, S. 2016. Dyslexia: is it genetic and what does this mean for social inclusion? Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 20 (4), pp. 202-207. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-08-2016-0024
How included are mental health service users in decisions about their medication?
Holttum, S. 2016. How included are mental health service users in decisions about their medication? Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 20 (3), pp. 141-148. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-05-2016-0015
Aims for service user involvement in mental health training: staying human
Lea, L., Holttum, S., Cooke, A. and Riley, L. 2016. Aims for service user involvement in mental health training: staying human. The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice. 11 (4), pp. 208-219. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMHTEP-01-2016-0008
Predictors of IAPT psychological well-being practitioners’ intention to use CBT self-help materials routinely in their clinical practice
Levy, M., Holttum, S., Dooley, J. and Ononaiye, M. 2016. Predictors of IAPT psychological well-being practitioners’ intention to use CBT self-help materials routinely in their clinical practice. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist. 9 (11). https://doi.org/10.1017/S1754470X16000076
Do computers increase older people’s inclusion and wellbeing?
Holttum, S. 2015. Do computers increase older people’s inclusion and wellbeing? Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 20 (1), pp. 6-11. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-11-2015-0041
Mental health, human rights and social inclusion for adults and children
Holttum, S. 2016. Mental health, human rights and social inclusion for adults and children. Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 20 (2), pp. 67-73. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-02-2016-0008
School inclusion for children with mental health difficulties
Holttum, S. 2015. School inclusion for children with mental health difficulties. Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 19 (4), pp. 161-168. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-08-2015-0030
Coping with cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis, adapting it for another culture, and community inclusion
Holttum, S. 2015. Coping with cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis, adapting it for another culture, and community inclusion. Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 19 (3), pp. 107-113. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-05-2015-0018
Students, inclusion, help-seeking and compassionate caring
Holttum, S. 2015. Students, inclusion, help-seeking and compassionate caring. Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 19 (2), pp. 61-67. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-03-2015-0010
Do clinicians and clinical researchers do enough to foster social inclusion?
Holttum, S. 2015. Do clinicians and clinical researchers do enough to foster social inclusion? Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 19 (1), pp. 5-11. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-11-2014-0039
How do “mental health professionals” who are also or have been “mental health service users” construct their identities?
Holttum, S., Richards, J. and Springham, N. 2016. How do “mental health professionals” who are also or have been “mental health service users” construct their identities? SAGE Open. 2016, pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244015621348
Reaching a UK consensus on art therapy for people with a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder using the Delphi method
Holttum, S., Huet, V. and Wright, Tim 2016. Reaching a UK consensus on art therapy for people with a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder using the Delphi method. International Journal of Art Therapy. 22 (1), pp. 35-44. https://doi.org/10.1080/17454832.2016.1257647
Development of a measure of caregiver burden in paediatric chronic kidney disease: the Paediatric Renal Caregiver Burden Scale
Parham, R., Jacyna, N., Horthi, D., Marks, S., Holttum, S. and Camic, P. 2014. Development of a measure of caregiver burden in paediatric chronic kidney disease: the Paediatric Renal Caregiver Burden Scale. Journal of Health Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105314524971
The process of engaging in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a partnership: a grounded theory study
Smith, E., Jones, F., Holttum, S. and Griffiths, K. 2014. The process of engaging in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a partnership: a grounded theory study. Mindfulness.
Testing a model of research intention among U.K. clinical psychologists: a logistic regression analysis
Eke, G., Holttum, S. and Hayward, M. 2012. Testing a model of research intention among U.K. clinical psychologists: a logistic regression analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 68 (3), pp. 263-278. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20860
Gender identity, research self-efficacy and research intention in trainee clinical psychologists in the UK
Wright, A. and Holttum, S. 2010. Gender identity, research self-efficacy and research intention in trainee clinical psychologists in the UK. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. 19 (1), pp. 46-56. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.732
Mechanisms of collaboration to support social interaction in ASC
Holttum, S., Yuill, N., Carr, A. and Kreitmayer, S. 2012. Mechanisms of collaboration to support social interaction in ASC.
Quality improvement projects: an introduction
Holttum, S., Raval, H. and Sperlinger, D. 2003. Quality improvement projects: an introduction. Clinical Psychology: Training, Research and Development. 1 (2), pp. 4-8.
A grounded-theory study of mindfulness practice following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
Langdon, S., Jones, F., Hutton, J. and Holttum, S. 2011. A grounded-theory study of mindfulness practice following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Mindfulness. 2 (4), pp. 270-281. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-011-0070-5
A grounded theory investigation of life experience and the role of social support for adolescent offspring after parental brain injury
Moreno-Lopez, A., Holttum, S. and Oddy, M. 2011. A grounded theory investigation of life experience and the role of social support for adolescent offspring after parental brain injury. Brain Injury. 25 (12), pp. 1221-1233. https://doi.org/10.3109/02699052.2011.608205
Involving service users and carers in clinical psychology training
Goodbody, L. and Holttum, S. 2007. Involving service users and carers in clinical psychology training.
Service user and carer involvement in clinical psychology doctoral training: Training as a professional and remaining human
Holttum, S. 2009. Service user and carer involvement in clinical psychology doctoral training: Training as a professional and remaining human.
Research watch
Holttum, S. 2011. Research watch. Mental Health and Social Inclusion. 15 (1), pp. 7-11. https://doi.org/10.5042/mhsi.2011.0052
From student to service user to research lecturer on a clinical psychology programme: a personal view on why clinical psychology training needs service user involvement
Holttum, S. 2010. From student to service user to research lecturer on a clinical psychology programme: a personal view on why clinical psychology training needs service user involvement. Clinical Psychology Forum. 209, pp. 39-41.
Small-scale placement-based research in clinical psychology training: the role of qualitative methods
Holttum, S. and Lavender, T. 2001. Small-scale placement-based research in clinical psychology training: the role of qualitative methods. Clinical Psychology. 5, pp. 27-31.
Express yourself? Research in brief
Holttum, S. 1998. Express yourself? Research in brief. The Psychologist. 11 (6), pp. 296-296.
Is abstinence from alcohol dangerous? Research in brief
Holttum, S. 1998. Is abstinence from alcohol dangerous? Research in brief. The Psychologist. 11 (4), p. 186.
An investigation of the impact of training social workers and their managers
Duffy, T., Holttum, S. and Keegan, M. 1998. An investigation of the impact of training social workers and their managers. Alcoholism. 34 (1-2), pp. 93-104.
Personality style, psychological adaptation and expectations of trainee clinical psychologists
Brooks, J., Holttum, S. and Lavender, T. 2002. Personality style, psychological adaptation and expectations of trainee clinical psychologists. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. 9 (4), pp. 253-270. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.318
Determinants of quality of life in black African women with HIV living in London
Onwumere, J., Holttum, S. and Hirst, F. 2002. Determinants of quality of life in black African women with HIV living in London. Psychology, Health and Medicine. 7 (1), pp. 61-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548500120101568
The relationship between acceptance and cognitive representations of pain in participants of a pain management programme
Rankin, H. and Holttum, S. 2003. The relationship between acceptance and cognitive representations of pain in participants of a pain management programme. Psychology, Health and Medicine. 8 (3), pp. 329-334. https://doi.org/10.1080/1354850031000135768
Factors influencing levels of research activity in clinical psychologists: a new model
Holttum, S. and Goble, L. 2006. Factors influencing levels of research activity in clinical psychologists: a new model. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. 13 (5), pp. 339-351. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.501
Perceived improvements in service user involvement in two clinical psychology training courses
Holttum, S. and Hayward, M. 2010. Perceived improvements in service user involvement in two clinical psychology training courses. Psychology Learning & Teaching. 9 (1), pp. 16-24. https://doi.org/10.2304/plat.2010.9.1.16
WAIS III UK: an extension of the UK comparability study
Wycherley, R., Lavender, T., Holttum, S., Crawford, J. and Mockler, D. 2005. WAIS III UK: an extension of the UK comparability study. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 44 (2), pp. 279-288. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466505X29440
Children's explanations of aggressive incidents at school within an attribution framework
Joscelyne, T. and Holttum, S. 2006. Children's explanations of aggressive incidents at school within an attribution framework. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 11 (2), pp. 104-110. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2006.00397.x
How do women experience myocardial infarction? A qualitative exploration of illness perceptions, adjustment and coping
White, J., Hunter, M. and Holttum, S. 2007. How do women experience myocardial infarction? A qualitative exploration of illness perceptions, adjustment and coping. Psychology, Health and Medicine. 12 (3), pp. 278-288. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548500600971288
Reflections on involving service users and carers in clinical psychology training
Holttum, S. 2008. Reflections on involving service users and carers in clinical psychology training. The Higher Education Academy Psychology Network Newsletter. 48, pp. 2-3.
Perceived changes associated with autogenic training for anxiety: a grounded theory study
Yurdakul, L., Holttum, S. and Bowden, A. 2009. Perceived changes associated with autogenic training for anxiety: a grounded theory study. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory Research and Practice. 82 (4), pp. 403-419. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608309X444749
Comparative clinical feasibility study of three tools for delivery of cognitive behavioural therapy for mild to moderate depression and anxiety, provided on a self-help basis
Pittaway, S., Cupitt, C., Palmer, D., Arowobusoye, N., Milne, R., Holttum, S., Pezet, R. and Patrik, H. 2009. Comparative clinical feasibility study of three tools for delivery of cognitive behavioural therapy for mild to moderate depression and anxiety, provided on a self-help basis. Mental Health in Family Medicine. 6 (3), pp. 145-154.