Experiences of physical activity during pregnancy resulting from in vitro fertilisation: an interpretative phenomenological analysis
Walker, C., Mills, H. and Gilchrist, A. 2017. Experiences of physical activity during pregnancy resulting from in vitro fertilisation: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2017.1313968
|Authors||Walker, C., Mills, H. and Gilchrist, A.|
Objective To explore the qualitative experiences and decision-making processes surrounding physical activity (PA) for women who have undergone IVF treatment.
Background Physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is safe for both mother and fetus in the majority of cases, including for women who have undergone in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment; however, there is a paucity of research into decision-making and PA in this population.
Methods Eight women, who had undergone successful IVF treatment and were currently pregnant or had given birth within the last two years, participated in semi-structured interviews about their experiences of infertility and PA during pregnancy. Interview transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.
Results Three superordinate themes emerged from the data: ‘navigating away from childlessness and towards motherhood’, ‘negotiating a safe passage’, and ‘balancing the challenges of pregnancy with the needs of the self’. Ten subthemes indicated the processes adopted to navigate experiences of infertility, the IVF process, and subsequent decision-making about PA during pregnancy.
Conclusion PA during pregnancy was experienced as a way to soothe the self and control the experience of pregnancy; however, this was mediated by concerns about safety and physical limitations on PA. Limitations of the study are considered, as well as implications for clinical practice and directions for future research.
|Journal||Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology|
|Publisher||Taylor & Francis|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)||https://doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2017.1313968|
|Online||20 Apr 2017|
|Publication process dates|
|Deposited||01 Feb 2017|
|Accepted||30 Jan 2017|
|Accepted author manuscript|
Ahern, K. J. (1999). Ten tips for reflexive bracketing. Qualitative Health Research, 9, 407-411. doi:10.1177/104973239900900309
Benjamin, O., & Ha'elyon, H. (2002). Rewriting fertilization: Trust, pain, and exit points. Women's Studies International Forum, 25, 667-678. doi: 10.1016/S0277-5395(02)00350-3
Boivin, J., Domar, A. D., Shapiro, D. B., Wischmann, T. H., Fauser, B. C. J. M., & Verhaak, C. (2012). Tackling burden in ART: An integrated approach for medical staff. Human Reproduction, 27, 941-950. doi:10.1093/humrep/der467
Clapp, J. F. (1990). The course of labor after endurance exercise during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 163, 1799–1805. doi: 10.1016/0002-9378(90)90753-T
Clarke, P. E., & Gross, H. (2004). Women's behaviour, beliefs and information sources about physical exercise in pregnancy. Midwifery, 20, 133-141. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2003.11.003
Crone, D., & Guy, H. (2008). ‘I know it is only exercise, but to me it is something that keeps me going’: A qualitative approach to understanding mental health service users' experiences of sports therapy. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 17, 197-207. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0349.2008.00529.x
De Vivo, M., Hulbert, S., Mills, H., & Uphill, M. A. (2016). Examining the effectiveness of the theory of planned behaviour in explaining exercise intention and behaviour during pregnancy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 34 (2) 122-138.
Diamond, R., Kezur, D., Meyers, M., Scharf, C. N., & Weinschel, M. (1999). Couple therapy for infertility. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Domar, A. D., Conboy, L., Denardo-Roney, J., & Rooney, K. L. (2012). Lifestyle behaviors in women undergoing in vitro fertilization: A prospective study. Fertility and Sterility, 97, 697-701. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.12.012
Duncombe, D., Wertheim, E. H., Skouteris, H., Paxton, S. J., & Kelly, L. (2009). Factors related to exercise over the course of pregnancy including women's beliefs about the safety of exercise during pregnancy. Midwifery, 25, 430-438. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2007.03.002
Evenson, K. R., Moos, M., Carrier, K., & Siega-Riz, A. M. (2009). Perceived barriers to physical activity among pregnant women. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 13, 364-375. doi:10.1007/s10995-008-0359-8
Ezmerli, N. M. (2000). Exercise in pregnancy. Primary Care Update for Ob/Gyns, 7, 260-265. doi: 10.1016/S1068-607X(00)00056-1
Gaston, A., Wilson, P. M., Mack, D. E., Elliot, S., & Prapavessis, H. (2013). Understanding physical activity behavior and cognitions in pregnant women: An application of self-determination theory. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 405-412. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.12.009
Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Goodrich, K., Cregger, M., Wilcox, S., & Liu, J. (2013). A qualitative study of factors affecting pregnancy weight gain in African American women. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 17, 432-440. doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1011-1
Gross, H., & Bee, P. E. (2004). Perceptions of effective advice in pregnancy – the case of activity. Clinical Effectiveness in Nursing, 8, 161-169. doi:10.1016/j.cein.2005.03.002
Hanghøj, S. (2013). When it hurts I think: Now the baby dies. Risk perceptions of physical activity during pregnancy. Women and Birth, 26, 190-194. doi:10.1016/j.wombi.2013.04.004
Hausenblas, H., Giacobbi, P., Cook, B., Rhodes, R., & Cruz, A. (2011). Prospective examination of pregnant and nonpregnant women’s physical activity beliefs and behaviours. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 29, 308-319. doi:10.1080/02646838.2011.629993
Hausenblas, H. A., & Symons Downs, D. (2004). Prospective examination of the theory of planned behavior applied to exercise behavior during women's first trimester of pregnancy. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 22, 199-210. doi:10.1080/02646830410001723788
Hegaard, H. K., Kjaergaard, H., Damm, P. P., Petersson, K., & Dykes, A. (2010). Experiences of physical activity during pregnancy in Danish nulliparous women with a physically active life before pregnancy: A qualitative study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 10:33:. doi:10.1186/1471-2393-10-33
Heron, J. (2004). The course of anxiety and depression through pregnancy and the postpartum in a community sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 80, 65-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2003.08.004
Hinton, P. S., & Olson, C. M. (2001). Postpartum exercise and food intake: The importance of behavior-specific self-efficacy. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 101, 1430-1437. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(01)00345-5
Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. (2014). Fertility treatment in 2013: Trends and figures. London: Author.
Imeson, M., & McMurray, A. (1996). Couples’ experiences of infertility: A phenomenological study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24, 1014-1022. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.1996.tb02938.x
Johnson, K. M., & Fledderjohann, J. (2012). Revisiting “her” infertility: Medicalized embodiment, self-identification and distress. Social Science & Medicine, 75, 883-891. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.04.020
Knowles, A. M., Niven, A., & Fawkner, S. (2011). A qualitative examination of factors related to the decrease in physical activity behavior in adolescent girls during the transition from primary to secondary school. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 8, 1084-1091.
Küçük, M. (2012). Bed rest after embryo transfer: Is it harmful? European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 167, 123-126. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.11.017
Leiferman, J., Swibas, T., Koiness, K., Marshall, J. A., & Dunn, A. L. (2011). My baby, my move: Examination of perceived barriers and motivating factors related to antenatal physical activity. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 56(1), 33-40. doi:10.1111/j.1542-2011.2010.00004.x
Leppanen, M., Aittasalo, M., Raitanen, J., Kinnunen, T. I., Kujala, U. M., & Luoto, R. (2014). Physical activity during pregnancy: Predictors of change, perceived support and barriers among women at increased risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18, 2158-2166. doi:10.1007/s10995-014-1464-5
Levin, J. S. (1991). The factor structure of the pregnancy anxiety scale. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32, 368-381. doi: 10.2307/2137104
Liu, J., Tuvblad, C., Li, L., Raine, A., & Baker, L. A. (2013). Medical record validation of maternal recall of pregnancy and birth events from a twin cohort. Twin Research and Human Genetics. 16, 845-860. doi: 10.1017/thg.2013.31
Marquez, D. X., Bustamante, E. E., Bock, B. C., Markenson, G., Tovar, A., & Chasan-Taber, L. (2009). Perspectives of Latina and non-Latina white women on barriers and facilitators to exercise in pregnancy. Women & Health, 49, 505-521. doi:10.1080/03630240903427114
McMahon, C., Tennant, C., Ungerer, J., & Saunders, D. (1999). ‘Don't count your chickens’: A comparative study of the experience of pregnancy after IVF conception. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 17, 345-356. doi: 10.1080/02646839908404600
Mottola, M., & Campbell, M. (2003). Activity patterns during pregnancy. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 28, 642–653. doi:10.1139/h03-049
Nash, M. (2011). “You don't train for a marathon sitting on the couch”: Performances of pregnancy ‘fitness’ and ‘good’ motherhood in Melbourne, Australia. Women's Studies International Forum, 34, 50-65. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2010.10.004
NICE (2013). Fertility: Assessment and treatment for people with fertility problems. Retrieved from http://www.nice.org.uk/CG156
Palha, A. P., & Lourenço, M. F. (2011). Psychological and cross cultural aspects of infertility and human sexuality. Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine, 31, 164-183. doi: 10.1159/000328922
Paul, M. S., Berger, R., Berlow, N., Rovner-Ferguson, H., Figlerski, L., Gardner, S., & Malave, A. F. (2010). Posttraumatic growth and social support in individuals with infertility. Human Reproduction, 25, 133-141. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dep367
Peoples, D., & Rovner-Ferguson, H. (2000). Experiencing infertility. New York: WW Norton & Company.
Pringle, J., Drummond, J., McLafferty, E., & Hendry, C. (2011). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: A discussion and critique. Nurse Researcher, 18, 20-24. doi: 10.7748/nr2011.04.18.3.20.c8459
Reading, A. E., Chang, L. C., & Kerin, J. F. (1989). Psychological state and coping styles across an IVF treatment cycle. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 7, 95-193. doi: 10.1080/02646838908403580
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. (2006). Exercise in pregnancy (Statement No. 4). Retrieved from https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/ documents/guidelines/statements/statement-no-4.pdf
Smith, J., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2009) Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis: Theory, Method and Research. London: Sage.
Su, T., Chen, Y., Hung, Y., & Yang, Y. (2001). Comparative study of daily activities of pregnant and non-pregnant women after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 100(4), 262-268.
Symons Downs, D., & Hausenblas, H. A. (2003). Exercising for two: Examining pregnant women's second trimester exercise intention and behavior using the framework of the theory of planned behavior. Women's Health Issues, 13, 222-228. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2003.09.004
Tabong, P. T., & Adongo, P. B. (2013). Infertility and childlessness: A qualitative study of the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana. BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth, 13:72. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-72
Van Hooft, E. A. J., & De Jong, M. (2009). Predicting job seeking for temporary employment using the theory of planned behaviour: The moderating role of individualism and collectivism. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82, 295-316. doi: 10.1348/096317908X325322
Wallace, A. M., Boyer, D. B., Dan, A., & Holm, K. (1986). Aerobic exercise, maternal self-esteem, and physical discomforts during pregnancy. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 31, 255-262. doi:10.1016/0091-2182(86)90034-0
White, M. (2004). Working with people who are suffering the consequences of multiple trauma: A narrative perspective. The International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work, 1, 45-76.
Willig, C. (2008). Introducing qualitative research in psychology: Adventures in theory and method (2nd ed.). Buckingham: Open University Press.
Yardley, L. (2000). Dilemmas in qualitative health research. Psychology and Health, 15, 215-228. doi:10.1080/08870440008400302
|Contributors||Walker, C., Mills, H. and Gilchrist, A.|
3views this month
1downloads this month