The development and validation of a teacher-reported low-level classroom disruption scale (LLCD-S)

Journal article


Cogswell, S., Carr, A., Abbott, N. and Monks, C. P. 2020. The development and validation of a teacher-reported low-level classroom disruption scale (LLCD-S). Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632752.2020.1816651
AuthorsCogswell, S., Carr, A., Abbott, N. and Monks, C. P.
Abstract

Low-level classroom disruption (LLCD) is characterised by pupils swinging on chairs, whispering or fidgeting in class. This paper provides initial data on the development and validation of the teacher-rated Low-Level Classroom Disruption Scale (LLCD-S), with two samples of primary pupils. Exploratory factor analysis in Study 1 (N=120) revealed one factor accounting for 61% of the variance; supported by confirmatory factor analysis in Study 2 (N=274), with one factor accounting for 63% of the variance. Both studies reported high Cronbach’s alpha values of .82 and .93. The evidence supports LLCD being a unidimensional construct, measured by the eight item LLCD-S. Weak convergence validity was found between the LLCD-S and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire’s (SDQ, Goodman, 1997) externalising behaviours: conduct problems and hyperactivity. This preliminary evidence indicates that LLCD-S is a valid and reliable measure of low-level classroom disruption. Further research is needed to test the utility of the LLCD-S across different levels of education, cultures and as a pupil-reported measure.

KeywordsLow-Level classroom disruption scale (LLCS-S); Teacher-report scale; Scale validation; Primary schools; Primary education
Year2020
JournalEmotional and Behavioural Difficulties
PublisherTaylor & Francis
ISSN1363-2752
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1080/13632752.2020.1816651
Official URLhttp://doi.org/10.1080/13632752.2020.1816651
Publication dates
Online12 Sep 2020
Publication process dates
Accepted27 Jul 2020
Deposited16 Sep 2020
Accepted author manuscript
Output statusPublished
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