Medical Pluralism, mainstream marginality or subaltern therapeutics? Globalisation and the integration of ‘Asian’ medicines and biomedicine in the UK

Journal article


Cant, S. 2020. Medical Pluralism, mainstream marginality or subaltern therapeutics? Globalisation and the integration of ‘Asian’ medicines and biomedicine in the UK. Society and Culture in South Asia. https://doi.org/10.1177/2393861719883064
AuthorsCant, S.
Abstract

Medical Pluralism refers to the co-existence of differing medical traditions and practices grounded in divergent epistemological positions and based on distinctive worldviews. From the 1970s, a globalised health market, underpinned by new consumer and practitioner interest, spawned the importation of ‘non-Western’ therapeutics to the UK. Since then, these various modalities have co-existed alongside, and sometimes within, biomedical clinics. Sociologists have charted the emergence of this ‘new’ medical pluralism in the UK, to establish how complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have fared in both the private and public health sectors and to consider explanations for the attraction of these modalities. The current positioning of CAM can be described as one of ‘mainstream marginality’ (Cant 2009): popular with users, but garnering little statutory support. Much sociological analysis has explained this marginal positioning of non-orthodox medicine by recourse to theories of professionalisation and has shown how biomedicine has been able, with the support of the state, to subordinate, co-opt and limit its competitors. Whilst insightful, this work has largely neglected to situate medical pluralism in its historical, global and colonial context. By drawing on post-colonial thinking, the paper suggests how we might differently theorise and research the appropriation, alteration and reimagining of ‘Asian’ therapeutic knowledges in the UK.

KeywordsComplementary and alternative medicine ; Globalisation; Medical pluralism; Subaltern therapeutics
Year2020
JournalSociety and Culture in South Asia
PublisherSage Journals
ISSN2393-8617
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1177/2393861719883064
Official URLhttps://doi.org/10.1177/2393861719883064
Publication dates
Online12 Jan 2020
Publication process dates
Deposited13 Jan 2020
Accepted28 Sep 2019
Accepted author manuscript
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
References

Adams, J., G. Easthope and D. Sibbritt. 2003. ‘Exploring the Relationship between Women’s Health and the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine.’ Complementary Therapies in Medicine, Vol 11(3):156-158.
Airhihenbuwa, C.O. 1995. Health and Culture. Beyond the Western Paradigm. London: Sage.
Almeida, J. 2012. ‘The Differential Incorporation of CAM into the Medical Establishment: The Case of Acupuncture and Homeopathy in Portugal.’ Health Sociology Review, Vol 21(1): 5-22.
Anderson, B. 1991. Imagined Communities. Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London:Verso.
Armstrong, D. 1983. Political Anatomy of the Body: Medical Knowledge in Britain in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Aslam, M. 1979. The Practice of Asian Medicine in the United Kingdom. Submitted PhD thesis. UK: University of Nottingham.
Banerjee, M. 2004. ‘Local Knowledge for World Market: Globalising Ayurveda’. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol 39(1): 89-93.
Beals, A.R. 1976. ‘Strategies of Resort to Curers in South India,’ in C. Leslie (ed.,) Asian Medical Systems: A Comparative Study. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bhambra, G.K. 2007. ‘Sociology and Postcolonialism: Another ‘missing’ revolution?’ Sociology, Vol 41(5): 871-884.
Bhambra, G.K. 2014. Connected Sociologies. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Bhambra, G.K. and Santos B. De Sousa. 2017. ‘Introduction: Global Challenges for Sociology.’ Sociology, Vol 51(1) 1-8.
Bishop, F. L. and G.T. Lewith. 2010. ‘Who uses CAM? A Narrative Review of Demographic Characteristics and Health Factors Associated with CAM Use’. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 7(1):11-28.
Bode, M. 2002. ‘Indian Indigenous Pharmaceutical: Tradition, Modernity and Nature,’ in W. Ernst (ed.,) Plural Medicine, Tradition and Modernity, 1800-2000. London: Routledge.
Brenton, J. and S. Elliott. 2014. ‘Undoing Gender? The Case of Complementary and Alternative Medicine.’ Sociology of Health and Illness, Vol 36(1): 91-107.
Broom, A., A. Doron, and P. Tovey. 2009. ‘The Inequalities of Medical Pluralism: Hierarchies of Health, the Politics of Tradition and the Economies of Care in Indian Oncology’. Social Science and Medicine, Vol 69(5): 698-706.

Campbell, C. 2015. Easternization of the West: a Thematic Account of Cultural Change in the Modern Era. London: Routledge.
Cant, S. and U. Sharma (eds.,) 1996. Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Knowledge in Practice. London: Free Association Books.
Cant, S. 2009. ‘Non-orthodox’ Medicine in an ‘Orthodox’ Health Service,’ in J. Gabe and M. Calnan (eds.,) The New Sociology of the Health Service. London: Routledge.
Cant, S., P. Watts and A. Ruston. 2011. ‘Negotiating Competency, Professionalism and Risk: The Integration of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Nurses and Midwives in NHS Hospitals’. Social Science and Medicine, Vol 72(4): 529-536.
Cant, S. and P. Watts. 2019. ‘Hidden in Plain sight: Exploring Men’s Use of Complementary and Alternative medicine. The Journal of Men’s Studies, Vol 27(1): 45-65.
Das, S. 2014. ‘Innovating Indigeneity, Reforming Domesticity: Nationalising Homeopathy in Colonial Bengal’, in M. Dinges (ed.,) Medical pluralism and Homoeopathy in India and Germany (1810-2010): A Comparison of Practices. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
Doyal, L. 1979. The Political Economy of Health. London: Pluto Press.
Duden, B. 1991. The Woman Beneath the Skin: A Doctor’s Patients in Eighteen Century Germany. London: Harvard University Press.
Ernst, W. 2002. Plural Medicine, Tradition and Modernity, 1800-2000. London: Routledge.
Fadlon, J. 2004. ‘Meridians, Chakras and Psycho-neuro-immunology: The Dematerializing Body and the Domestication of Alternative medicine.’ Body and Society, Vol 10(4): 69-86.
Flesch, H. 2007. ‘Silent Voices: Women, Complementary Medicine, and the Co-optation of Change.’ Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, Vol 13(3):166-173.
Flesch, H. 2010. ‘Balancing Act: Women and the Study of Complementary and Alternative Medicine.’ Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, Vol 16(1): 20-25.
Freidson, E. 1970. Profession of Medicine. A Study in the Sociology of Applied Knowledge. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co.
Foucault, M. 1973. The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception, London: Tavistock.
Green, G., H. Bradby, A. Chan and M. Lee. 2006. ‘“We Are Not Completely Westernised”: Dual Medical Systems and Pathways to Health Care among Chinese Migrant Women in England.’ Social Science and Medicine, Vol 62(6):1498-1509.
Go, J. 2016. Postcolonial Thought and Social Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goldstein, M.S. 2004. ‘The Persistence and Resurgence of Medical Pluralism.’ Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, Vol 29 (4-5): 925-945
Harris, P.E., K.L. Cooper., C. Relton and K.J. Thomas. 2012. ‘Prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use by the General Population: a Systematic Review and Update’. International Journal of Clinical Practice, Vol 66(10): 924-939.
Han, G.S. 2002. ‘The Myth of Medical Pluralism: A Critical Realist Perspective’. Sociological Research Online, Vol 6(4):92-112.
Hamilton, M. 2002. ‘The Easternisation Thesis: Critical reflections.’ Religion, Vol 32: 243-258
Healy, M., and M. Aslam. 1990. The Asian community: Medicines and traditions. Huddersfield, UK: Amadeus Press.
Heelas, P. 2007. ‘The Holistic Milieu and Spirituality: Reflections on Voas and Bruce’ in K. Flanagan and P. Jupp (eds.,) A Sociology of Spirituality. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Hollenberg, D. 2006. ‘Uncharted Ground: Patterns of Professional Interaction
Among Complementary/alternative and Biomedical Practitioners in Integrative Health Care Settings.’ Social Science and Medicine, Vol 62(3):731-744.
Hollenberg, D. and I.L. Bourgeault. 2011. ‘Linking Integrative Medicine with Interprofessional Education and Care Initiatives: Challenges and Opportunities for Interprofessional Collaboration.’ Journal of Interprofessional Care, Vol. 25(3):182-188.
Hollenberg, D. and L. Muzzin. 2010. ‘Epistemological Challenges to Integrative Medicine: An Anti-colonial Perspective on the Combination of Complementary/Alternative Medicine with Biomedicine.’ Health Sociology Review, Vol 19(1): 34-56.
House of Lords. 2000. Science and Technology, Sixth Report. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199900/ldselect/ldsctech/123...
Jayasundar, R. 2012. ‘Contrasting Approaches to Health and Disease: Ayurveda and Biomedicine,’ in V. Sujatha and L. Abraham (eds.,) Medical Pluralism in Contemporary India. Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan Private Limited.
Johnston S. L. 2002. ‘Native American Traditional and Alternative Medicine.’ The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol 583(1):195–213
Keval, H. 2009. ‘Cultural Negotiations in Health and Illness: The Experience of Type 2 Diabetes among Gujarati-speaking South Asians in England.’ Diversity in Health Care, Vol 6(4):255-65.
Khan, S. 2006. ‘Systems of Medicine and Nationalist Discourse in India: Towards “new horizons” in Medical Anthropology and History.’ Social Science and Medicine, Vol 62(11):2786-2797.
Lenard, P.T. and C. Straehle. 2012. Health Inequalities and Global Justice. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
Leslie, C. (ed.,) 1976. Asian Medical Systems. A Comparative Study. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Leslie, C. 1980. ‘Medical Pluralism in World Perspective’. Medical Anthropology, Vol 14 (4): 191-5.
Leslie, C. and A. Young. 1992. Paths of Asian Medical Knowledge. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lock, M. 1980. East Asian Medicine in Urban Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lock, M. and V.K. Nguyen. 2010. An Anthropology of Biomedicine. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.
Marmot, M. 2015. The Health Gap. London:Bloomsbury.
Manchanda, R.K., S.K. Verma., L.V. Chhatre and H. Kaur. 2014. ‘Homeopathy in Urban Primary Healthcare Units of the Delhi Government : An Assessment’ in M. Dinges (ed) Medical Pluralism and Homoeopathy in India and Germany (1810-2010): A Comparison of Practices. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
Michel, J., G.B. Mahady., M. Veliz., D.D. Soejartoand A. Caceres. 2006. ‘Symptoms, Attitudes and Treatment Choices Surrounding Menopause among the Q’eqchai Maya of Livingstone, Guatamala.’ Social Science and Medicine, Vol 63: 732-742.
Mizrachi, N., J.T. Shuval and S. Gross. 2005. ‘Boundary at Work: Alternative Medicine in Biomedical Settings.’ Sociology of Health and Illness, Vol 27(1): 20-43.
Muharji, P.B. 2016. Doctoring Traditions. Ayurveda, Small Technologies and Braided Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Naradindas, H.,J.Quackand and W.S. Sax. 2014. (eds.,) Asymmetrical Conversations. Contestations, Circumventions, and the Blurring of Therapeutic Boundaries. New York: Berghahn.
Newcombe, S. 2009. ‘The Development of Modern Yoga: A Survey of the Field’. Religion Compass, Vol 3(6):986-1002.
Newcombe, S. 2012. ‘Global Hybrids? Eastern Traditions of Health and Wellness in the West’ in S. Nair-Venugopal (ed.,) The Gaze of the West and the Framings of the East. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Penkala-Gawęcka, D and M. Rajtar, M. 2016. ‘Introduction to the Special Issue ‘Medical Pluralism and Beyond’. Anthropology and Medicine, Vol 23(2):129-134.
Porter, R (ed). 1992. The Popularisation of Medicine, 1650-1850. London: Routledge.
Reed, K. 2003. Worlds of Health. Exploring the Health Choices of British Asian Mothers. London: Praeger.
Robertson, R. 1992. Globalisation: Social Theory and Global Culture. London: Sage.
Robertson, R. 1995. ‘Glocalisation: Time-space and Homogeneity-heterogeneity,’ in M. Featherstone, M., L. Scott and R. Robertson (eds.,) Global Modernities. London: Sage
Rochelle, T.L. and D.F. Marks. (2010). ‘Health behaviours and Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine among the British Chinese’. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,Vol 42(3):390-405.
Said, E.W. 1979. Orientalism. London: Vintage.
Saks, M. 1992. Alternative Medicine in Britain. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Santos, B de Souza. 2014. Epistemologies of the South: Justice against Epistemicide. London: Paradigm Publishers.
Scott, A. 1998. ‘Homoeopathy as a Feminist Form of Medicine’. Sociology of Health and Illness, Vol 20(2): 191-214.
Sen, S, and R. Chakraborty. 2016. ‘Revival, Modernization and Integration of Indian Traditional Herbal Medicine in Clinical practice: Importance, Challenges and Future’. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 7(2): 234-244.
Shih, S.F., C.Y. Lew-Ting., H.Y. Chang and K.N. Kuo. 2008. ‘Insurance Covered and Non-Covered Complementary and Alternative Medicine Utilisation among Adults in Taiwan.’ Social Science and Medicine, Vol 67(7):1183-1189.
Shuval, J. 2006. ‘Nurses in Alternative Health Care: Integrating Medical Paradigms.’ Social Science and Medicine, Vol 63(7):1784-1795.
Shuval, J.T., N. Mizrachi and E. Smetannikov. 2002. ‘Entering the Well-guarded Fortress: Alternative Practitioners in Hospital Settings.’ Social Science and Medicine, Vol 55(10):1745-1755.
Shuval, J.T. and N. Mizrachi. 2004. ‘Changing Boundaries: Modes of Coexistence of Alternative and Biomedicine.’ Qualitative Health Research, Vol 14(5): 675-690.
Sointu, E. 2011. ‘Detraditionalisation, Gender and Alternative and Complementary Medicines.’ Sociology of Health and Illness, Vol 33(3):356-371.
Spivak, G.C. 1988. ‘Can the subaltern speak?’ in C. Nelson, C and L. Grossberg (eds.,) Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
Stiglitz, J.E. 2013. The Price of Inequality. How Today’s Divided Society Endangers our Future. New York: W.W Norton and Company.
Sujatha, V and L. Abraham, L. 2012. Medical Pluralism in Contemporary India, Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan Private Limited.
Svobada, R. E. 2008. ‘The Ayurvedic Diaspora: A Personal Account’ in, D. Wujastyk and F.M. Smith. (eds.,) Modern and Global Ayurveda. Pluralism and Paradigms. New York: State University New York Press.
Turner, B.S. 1995. Medical Power and Social Knowledge. London: Sage.
Unschuld, P.U. 1987. ‘Traditional Chinese Medicine: Some Historical and Epistemological Reflections.’ Social Science and Medicine, Vol 24(12):1023-1029.
Waisse, S. 2014. ‘East meets West: Johann M. Honigberger and Medical Pluralism through the Eyes of a 19th century Transylvanian Saxon in India’, in M. Dinges (ed.,) Medical pluralism and Homoeopathy in India and Germany (1810-2010): A Comparison of Practices. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
Warrier, M. 2014. ‘Ayurveda in Britain. The Twin Imperatives of Professionalisation and Spiritual Seeking.’ In H. Naradindas, J. Quack and W. S. Sax. (eds.,) Asymmetrical Conversations. Contestations, circumventions, and the blurring of therapeutic boundaries. New York: Berghahn.
Worboys, M. 1997. ‘The Spread of Western Medicine,’ in I. Loudon (ed.,) Western Medicine. An Illustrated History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wujastyk, D and F.M. Smith. 2008. Modern and Global Ayurveda. Pluralism and Paradigms, New York: State University New York Press.

Permalink -

https://repository.canterbury.ac.uk/item/8q8xx/medical-pluralism-mainstream-marginality-or-subaltern-therapeutics-globalisation-and-the-integration-of-asian-medicines-and-biomedicine-in-the-uk

Download files

Accepted author manuscript
  • 14
    total views
  • 32
    total downloads
  • 1
    views this month
  • 2
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Generational Encounters with Higher Education The academic–student relationship and the university experience
Cant, S., Bristow, J. and Chatterjee, A. 2020. Generational Encounters with Higher Education The academic–student relationship and the university experience. Bristol Bristol University Press.
The art world’s response to the challenge of inequality
Cant, S. 2020. The art world’s response to the challenge of inequality. London International Inequalities Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science.
Popular but peripheral: the ambivalent status of sociology education in schools in England
Cant, S., Savage, M. and Chatterjee, A. 2019. Popular but peripheral: the ambivalent status of sociology education in schools in England. Sociology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038519856815
Are students these days more fragile?
Bristow, J., Cant, S. and Chatterjee, A. 2019. Are students these days more fragile?
The graduate generation: how students navigate the contradictions of higher education.
Bristow, J., Cant, S. and Chatterjee, A. 2019. The graduate generation: how students navigate the contradictions of higher education.
Knowledge, scholarship, and the ‘schoolification’ of the University
Bristow, J., Cant, S. and Chatterjee, A. 2019. Knowledge, scholarship, and the ‘schoolification’ of the University.
Who cares about the university?
Bristow, J., Cant, S. and Chatterjee, A. 2018. Who cares about the university?
Hidden in plain sight: exploring men’s use of complementary and alternative medicine
Cant, S. and Watts, P. 2018. Hidden in plain sight: exploring men’s use of complementary and alternative medicine. The Journal of Men's Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177/1060826518778839
Hysteresis, social congestion and debt: towards a sociology of mental health disorders in undergraduates
Cant, S. 2017. Hysteresis, social congestion and debt: towards a sociology of mental health disorders in undergraduates. Social Theory & Health. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41285-017-0057-y
Mainstream marginality: professional projects and the appeal of complementary and alternative medicines in a context of medical pluralism.
Cant, S. 2017. Mainstream marginality: professional projects and the appeal of complementary and alternative medicines in a context of medical pluralism. PhD Thesis Canterbury Christ Church University Faculty of Social and Applied Science
The 'knowledgeable doer': nurse and midwife integration of complementary and alternative medicine in NHS hospitals
Cant, S. and Watts, P. 2015. The 'knowledgeable doer': nurse and midwife integration of complementary and alternative medicine in NHS hospitals. in: Gale, N. and McHale, J. (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Perspectives from Social Science and Law London Routledge. pp. 98-110
“Precarious professionalism: attempts by nurses and midwives to position themselves as competent practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in the UK National Health Service”
Cant, S. and Watts, P. 2013. “Precarious professionalism: attempts by nurses and midwives to position themselves as competent practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in the UK National Health Service”.
Complementary and alternative medicine: gender and marginality
Cant, S. and Watts, P. 2012. Complementary and alternative medicine: gender and marginality. in: Kuhlmann, E. and Annandale, E. (ed.) The Palgrave Handbook of Gender and Health Care Basingstoke Palgrave. pp. 488-520
The knowledgeable doer: nurse and midwife integration of complementary and alternative medicine in NHS hospitals
Cant, S. 2011. The knowledgeable doer: nurse and midwife integration of complementary and alternative medicine in NHS hospitals.
Empowerment and marginality
Cant, S. 2011. Empowerment and marginality.
The rise and fall of complementary medicine in National Health Service hospitals in England
Cant, S., Watts, P. and Ruston, A. 2012. The rise and fall of complementary medicine in National Health Service hospitals in England. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 18 (3), pp. 135-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2012.05.004
The reluctant profession: homoeopathy and the search for legitimacy
Cant, S. and Sharma, U. 1995. The reluctant profession: homoeopathy and the search for legitimacy. Work, Employment and Society. 9 (4), pp. 743-762. https://doi.org/10.1177/095001709594006
Demarcation and transformation within homoeopathic knowledge. A strategy of professionalization
Cant, S. and Sharma, U. 1996. Demarcation and transformation within homoeopathic knowledge. A strategy of professionalization. Social Science and Medicine. 42 (4), pp. 579-588. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(95)00158-1
Familiarity breeds contentment: Enabling student transitions into HE through taking a holistic approach approach to level IV delivery
Cant, S. and Watts, P. 2009. Familiarity breeds contentment: Enabling student transitions into HE through taking a holistic approach approach to level IV delivery.
Soft, strong and very, very long: An integrated approach to fostering student retention and success
Cant, S. and Watts, P. 2009. Soft, strong and very, very long: An integrated approach to fostering student retention and success.
Risk and protection: CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine) use in the NHS
Ruston, A., Cant, S. and Watts, P. 2009. Risk and protection: CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine) use in the NHS.
Negotiating competency, professionalism and risk: the integration of complementary and alternative medicine by nurses and midwives in NHS hospitals
Cant, S., Watts, P. and Ruston, A. 2011. Negotiating competency, professionalism and risk: the integration of complementary and alternative medicine by nurses and midwives in NHS hospitals. Social Science and Medicine. 72 (4), pp. 529-536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.11.034
Pure and dangerous: complementary and alternative medicine, risk and governmentality
Cant, S. and Watts, P. 2010. Pure and dangerous: complementary and alternative medicine, risk and governmentality.
The state and complementary medicine: a changing relationship?
Cant, S. and Sharma, U. 2002. The state and complementary medicine: a changing relationship? in: Nettleton, S. and Gustafsson, U. (ed.) The Sociology of Health and Illness Reader Cambridge Polity Press. pp. 334-344
Recycling old ideas for a new age
Cant, S. 2002. Recycling old ideas for a new age. in: Jenkins, T. (ed.) Alternative Medicine: Should We Swallow It? Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 15-30
Team tactics: a study of nurse collaboration in general practice
Cant, S. and Killoran, A. 1993. Team tactics: a study of nurse collaboration in general practice. Health Education Journal. 52 (4), pp. 203-208. https://doi.org/10.1177/001789699305200403
All change in the NHS? Implications of the NHS reforms for primary care prevention
Williams, S., Calnan, M., Cant, S. and Coyle, J. 1993. All change in the NHS? Implications of the NHS reforms for primary care prevention. Sociology of Health and Illness. 15 (1), pp. 43-67. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11343790
Principles and practice: the case of private health insurance
Calnan, M. and Cant, S. 2007. Principles and practice: the case of private health insurance. in: Burrows, R. and Marsh, C. (ed.) Consumption and Class: Divisions and Change Basingstoke, UK Palgrave Macmillan.
Medical pluralism
Cant, S. 2004. Medical pluralism. in: Gabe, J., Bury, M. and Elston, M. (ed.) Key Concepts in Medical Sociology London SAGE Publications Ltd. pp. 183-187
On the margins of the medical marketplace? An exploratory study of alternative practitioners' perceptions
Cant, S. and Calnan, M. 1991. On the margins of the medical marketplace? An exploratory study of alternative practitioners' perceptions. Sociology of Health and Illness. 13 (1), pp. 39-57. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11340313
Using private health insurance. A study of lay decisions to seek professional medical help
Cant, S. and Calnan, M. 1992. Using private health insurance. A study of lay decisions to seek professional medical help. Sociology of Health and Illness. 14 (1), pp. 39-56. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11007151
Professionalization of complementary medicine in the United Kingdom
Cant, S. and Sharma, U. 1996. Professionalization of complementary medicine in the United Kingdom. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 4 (3), pp. 157-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0965-2299(96)80001-X
Reflexivity, ethnography and the professions (complementary medicine). Watching you, watching me, watching you (and writing about both of us)
Cant, S. and Sharma, U. 1998. Reflexivity, ethnography and the professions (complementary medicine). Watching you, watching me, watching you (and writing about both of us). The Sociological Review. 46 (2), pp. 244-263. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.00118
Understanding why people use complementary and alternative medicine
Cant, S. 2004. Understanding why people use complementary and alternative medicine. in: Lee-Treweek, G., Heller, T., Spurr, S., MacQueen, H. and Katz, J. (ed.) Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Reader Abingdon, UK Routledge. pp. 222-231
From charismatic teaching to professional training: the legitimation of knowledge and the creation of trust in homoeopathy and chiropractic
Cant, S. 2004. From charismatic teaching to professional training: the legitimation of knowledge and the creation of trust in homoeopathy and chiropractic. in: Lee-Treweek, G., Heller, T., Spurr, S., MacQueen, H. and Katz, J. (ed.) Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Reader Abingdon, UK Routledge. pp. 222-231
Mainstream marginality: ''non-orthodox'' medicine in an ''orthodox'' health service
Cant, S. 2009. Mainstream marginality: ''non-orthodox'' medicine in an ''orthodox'' health service. in: Gabe, J. and Calnan, M. (ed.) The New Sociology of the Health Service Abingdon, UK Routledge. pp. 177-200
Knowledge or imagination? The challenges widening participation poses for the teaching of sociology
Cant, S. and Watts, P. 2007. Knowledge or imagination? The challenges widening participation poses for the teaching of sociology. Widening Participation and Lifelong Learning. 9 (2), pp. 6-15.
The social organisation of food consumption: A comparison of middle class and working class households
Calnan, M. and Cant, S. 1990. The social organisation of food consumption: A comparison of middle class and working class households. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. 10 (2), pp. 53-79. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb013092