An assessment of the dose and image quality difference between AP and PA positioned adult radiographic knee examinations

Journal article


Lockwood, P. and Mitchell, M. 2022. An assessment of the dose and image quality difference between AP and PA positioned adult radiographic knee examinations. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmir.2022.12.004
AuthorsLockwood, P. and Mitchell, M.
Abstract

Introduction
Knee X-rays are a standard examination to diagnose multiple conditions ranging from traumatic injuries, degeneration, and cancer. This study explores the differences between adult Anterior-Posterior (AP) and Posterior-Anterior (PA) weight-bearing knee examinations using absorbed radiation dose data and image quality.

Methods
The study modelled and compared AP and PA knee X-ray radiation dose data using Monte-Carlo software, an Ion Chamber, and thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) on a Rando phantom. Imaging parameters used were 66kVp, 4mAs, 100cm distance and 13 × 24cm collimation. The interval data analysis used a two-tailed t-test. The image quality of a sample of the AP and PA knee X-rays was assessed using Likert 5-point ordinal Image Quality Scoring (IQS) and the Wilcoxon matched pairs test.

Results
Monte-Carlo modelling provided limited results; the Ion Chamber data for absorbed dose provided no variation between AP and PA positions but was similar to the AP TLD dose. The absorbed doses recorded with batches of TLDs demonstrated a 27.4% reduction (46.1μGy; p=0.01) in Skin Entrance Dose (ESD) and 9 - 58% dose reduction (1.6 – 16.4μGy; p=0.00-0.2) to the tissues and organs while maintaining diagnostic image quality (p=0.67).

Conclusion
The study has highlighted the various challenges of using different dosimetry approaches to measure absorbed radiation dose in extremity (knee) X-ray imaging. The Monte-Carlo simulated absorbed knee dose was overestimated, but the simulated body organ/tissue doses were lower than the actual TLD absorbed doses. The Ion Chamber absorbed doses did not differentiate between the positions. The TLD organ/tissue absorbed doses demonstrated a reduction in dose in the PA position compared to the AP position, without a detrimental effect on image quality. The study findings in laboratory conditions raise awareness of opportunities and potential to lower radiation dose, with further study replicated in a clinical site recommended.

KeywordsRadiography; Knee examinations; Knee x-rays
Year2022
JournalJournal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
PublisherElsevier
ISSN1939-8654
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmir.2022.12.004
Official URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1939865422006816
Publication dates
Online15 Jan 2023
Publication process dates
Accepted15 Jan 2023
Deposited16 Jan 2023
Publisher's version
License
Output statusIn press
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https://repository.canterbury.ac.uk/item/93912/an-assessment-of-the-dose-and-image-quality-difference-between-ap-and-pa-positioned-adult-radiographic-knee-examinations

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