Federalism as a tool of conflict resolution – introduction to the special issue

Journal article


Keil, S. and Alber, E. 2020. Federalism as a tool of conflict resolution – introduction to the special issue. Ethnopolitics. 30 (4).
AuthorsKeil, S. and Alber, E.
Abstract

There is a growing literature on the use of federalism as a tool of conflict resolution. Yet, while this literature focuses mainly on single case studies, there remains a gap in our comparative understanding of the workings of federalism as a tool to end violent conflicts, as well as the conditions under which it may succeed in bringing peace to war-torn countries. By discussing core themes that emerge when looking at single case studies and relevant theories on the use of federalism as a tool of conflict resolution, we highlight the importance of three main issues in our understanding of the workings of federalism as a tool of conflict resolution: (1) The role of centralization, decentralization and recentralization in the management of diversity and to accommodate the demands of different groups; (2) Contestation of the state, identity, the idea of federalism and other key issues in societies, in which ownership over the state is contested and fought over; and (3) Third-party intervention, geopolitics, and geoeconomics in the management of diversity. By bringing together existing debates on the topic of federalism and conflict resolution, and positioning the papers in this special issue within these debates, some of the complexities but also promises of the use of federalism as a tool of conflict resolution will be highlighted.

KeywordsFederalism; Conflict resolution; Secession; Geopolitics; Decentralization
Year2020
JournalEthnopolitics
Journal citation30 (4)
PublisherTaylor & Francis
ISSN1744-9065
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1080/17449057.2020.1795469
Official URLhttps://doi.org/10.1080/17449057.2020.1795469
Publication dates
Online23 Jul 2020
Publication process dates
Accepted10 Jul 2020
Deposited13 Jul 2020
Accepted author manuscript
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
References

Abede, S. (2014). The Last Post- Cold War Socialist Federation: Ethnicity, Ideology and Democracy in Ethiopia. Abingdon: Routledge.

Agnew, J. (1998). Geopolitics: Re-visioning World Politics. London: Routledge.

Alber, E. (2017). South Tyrol’s Negotiated Autonomy. Journal of Ethnic Studies. 78, 41-58. Available at: https://rig-td.si/en/clanki/south-tyrols-negotiated-autonomy-2/

Anderson, L. (2013). Federal Solutions to Ethnic Problems – Accommodating Diversity. London and New York: Routledge.

Anderson, P. and Keil, S. (forthcoming) Federalism and Conflict Resolution, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Brancati, D. (2009). Peace by Design: Managing Intrastate Conflict through Decentralization. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Brando, N. and Morales-Gálvez, S. (2019). The Right to Secession: Remedial or Primary?. Ethnopolitics, 18:2, 107-118.

Bossacoma Busquets, P. (2020). Morality and Legality of Secession – A Theory of National Self-Determination. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Buchanan, A. (1991). Secession – The Morality of Political Divorce from Fort Sumter to Lithuania and Quebec. Boulder et.al: Westview Press.

Buchanan, A. (1995). Federalism, inclusion, and the morality of secession. Arizona Law Review, 37(53), 53-63.

Burgess, M. (2006). Comparative Federalism – Theory and Practice. London and New York: Routledge.

Caspersen, N. (2017). Peace Agreements. Cambridge: Polity. Press.

Church, C. and Dardanelli, P. (2005). The Dynamics of Confederalism and Federalism: Comparing Switzerland and the EU. Regional and Federal Studies, 15:2, 163-185.

Collier, P. (2004). Natural Resources, Development and Conflict: Channels of Causation and Policy Interventions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Collier, P. and Hoeffler, A. (2005). Resource Rents, Governance, and Conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49, 625-633.

Collin, K. (2019). Peacemaking Referendums in Oceania: Making or Delaying Peace in New Caledonia. Ethnopolitics, 18:2, 139-157.

Covey, J., Dziedzic, M. and Hawley, L. (Eds.) (2005). The Quest for Viable Peace – International Intervention and Strategies for Conflict Transformation. Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Cox, F. and Sisk, T. (Eds.) (2017). Peacebuilding in Deeply Divided Societies – Towards Social Cohesion. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Erk, J. and Anderson, L. (2009). The Paradox of Federalism: Does Self-Rule Accommodate or Exacerbate Ethnic Divisions? Regional and Federal Studies, 19:2, 191-202.

Fisher, J. R. (2011). Methods of Third-Party Intervention. In: B. Austin, M. Fischer, H.J. Giessmann (Eds.), Advancing Conflict Transformation (pp. 157-182). The Berghof Handbook II. Opladen/Framington Hills: Barbara Budrich Publishers. Available at: www.berghof-handbook.net.

Forsyth, M. (1981). Union of States – The Theory and Practice of Confederation. Leicester: Leicester University Press.

Ghai, Y., & Regan, A. (2006). Unitary State, Devolution, Autonomy, Secession: state building and nation building in Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. The Round Table, 95, 589-608.

Joenniemi, P. (2014). The Ǻland Islands: Neither local nor fully sovereign. Cooperation and Conflict, 49(1), 80-97.
Kaldor, M. (2012). New and Old Wars – Organized Violence in a Global Era. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Keating, M. (2012). Rethinking Territorial Autonomy. In: A. Gagnon and M. Keating (Eds.). Political Autonomy and Divided Societies – Imaging Democratic Alternatives in Complex Settings (pp. 13-31). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Keil, S. (2013) Multinational Federalism in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Farnham: Ashgate.

Keil, S. (2019). Federalism as a Tool of Conflict Resolution. In: J. Kincaid (Ed.), A Research Agenda for Federalism Studies (pp. 151-161) Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Keil, S. and Anderson, P. (2018). Decentralization as a tool for conflict resolution. In K. Detterbeck and E. Hepburn (Ed.), Handbook of Territorial Politics (pp. 89-106) Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Knott, E. (2019). Beyond the Field: Ethics after Fieldwork in Politically Dynamic Contexts. Perspectives on Politics, 17, 140-153.

Kurecic, P. (2015). Geoeconomic and geopolitical conflicts: outcomes of the geopolitical economy in a contemporary world. World Review of Political Economy, 6:4, 522-543.

Lapidoth, R. (1997). Autonomy – Flexible Solutions to Ethnic Conflicts. Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Nicolini, M., Palermo, F. and Milano, E. (2016). Law, Territory and Conflict Resolution -
Law as a Problem and Law as a Solution. Leiden and Boston: Brill Nijhoff.

Norman, W. (2006). Negotiating Nationalism – Nation-Building, Federalism and Secession in the Multinational State. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Ottaway, M. (2002). Think Again: Nation Building. Foreign Policy, September/October 2002, 16-24.

Paris, R. (2005). At War’s End – Building Peace After Civil Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Palermo, F. (2019). Towards a Comparative Constitutional Law of Secession? In: G. Delledonne and Giuseppe Martinico (Eds.), The Canadian Contribution to a Comparative Law of Secession (pp. 265-282) Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Requejo, F. (2017). Is Spain a Federal Country? 50 Shades of Federalism. Available at: http://50shadesoffederalism.com/case-studies/spain-federal-country/

Saunders, C. and Dziedzic, A. (2019). Greater autonomy and independence for Bougainville: Instititional options and issues for transition. PNG NRI Research Report 07. Port Moresby: Papua New Guinea National Research Institute. Available at: https://law.unimelb.edu.au/centres/cccs/events/news-and-events/publi...

Schulte, F. (2020). Peace Through Self-Determination – Success and Failure of Territorial Autonomy. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Shakir, F. (2017). The Iraqi Federation – Origin, Operation and Significance. London and New York: Routledge.

Simolin, S. (2018). The Aims of Åland and Finland Regarding a New Act on the Autonomy of Åland – An analysis of three parliamentarycommittee reports (2010–2017). Journal of Autonomy and Security Studies, 2(1) 2018, 8–48

Sorens, J. (2012). Secessionism. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-University Press.

Sparke, M. (2007). Geopolitical Fears, Geoeconomic Hopes and the Responsibilities of Geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 97:2, 338-349.

Spiliopoulou Ǻkermark, S. (2013). Internal Self-Determination and the Role of Territorial Autonomy as a Tool for the Resolution of Ethno-Political Disputes. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, 20(1), 5-25.

Suksi, M. (2013). Explaining the Robustness and Longevity of the Ǻland Example in Comparison with Other Autonomy Solutions. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, 20(1), 51-66.

Walsh, D. (2018). Territorial Self-Government as a Conflict Management Tool. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Walsh, D. and Doyle, J. (2018). External Actors in Consociational Settlements: A Re-examination of Lijphart’s Negative Assumptions. Ethnopolitics, 17:1, 21-36.

Wigell, M., Scholvin S. and Aatola, M. (2020). Geo-economics and Power Politics in the 21st century. The Revival of Economic Statecraft. London: Routledge.

Woelk, J., Palermo, F. and Marko, J. (2008), Tolerance Through Law – Self Governance and Group Rights in South Tyrol. Leiden and Boston: Brill Nijhoff.

Wolff, S. (2009). Complex Power Sharing and the Centrality of Territorial Self-governance in Contemporary Conflict Settlements. Ethnopolitics, 8:1, 27-45.

Wolff, S. (2011). The Merits and Perils of Territorial Accommodation. Political Studies Review, 9:1, 26-41.

Permalink -

https://repository.canterbury.ac.uk/item/8vxwq/federalism-as-a-tool-of-conflict-resolution-introduction-to-the-special-issue

Restricted files

Accepted author manuscript

  • 13
    total views
  • 2
    total downloads
  • 3
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Scotland, the UK and Brexit - at a constitutional crossroads: what next for Scotland?
Anderson, P. and Keil, S. 2020. Scotland, the UK and Brexit - at a constitutional crossroads: what next for Scotland? Centre International de Formation Europeene.
Change amidst continuity? Assessing the 2018 regional elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Hulsey, J. and Keil, S. 2020. Change amidst continuity? Assessing the 2018 regional elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Regional & Federal Studies. 30 (3).
Kroatien
Keil, S. and Selo Sabic, S. 2020. Kroatien. in: Benz, A., Bröchler, S. and Lauth, H.-J. (ed.) Handbuch der Europäischen Verfassungsgeschichte im 20. Jahrhundert 5 - seit 1989 Dietz. pp. 1083-1110
Understanding federalism
Keil, S. and Heinemann-Gruder, A. 2019. Understanding federalism. Yangon Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung.
Shades of Federalism Volume 3
Keil, S. Keil, S. and Munz, A. (ed.) 2019. Shades of Federalism Volume 3. Yangon Hanns Seidel Foundation.
Federalism as a tool of conflict resolution
Keil, S. 2019. Federalism as a tool of conflict resolution . in: Kincaid, J. (ed.) A Research Agenda for Federalism Studies Cheltenham Edward Elgar. pp. 151-161
Ideology and party system change in consociational systems: the case of non-nationalist parties in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Hulsey, J. and Keil, S. 2019. Ideology and party system change in consociational systems: the case of non-nationalist parties in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics. 25 (4).
The europeanisation of contested states – comparing Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro
Dzankic, J. and Keil, S. 2018. The europeanisation of contested states – comparing Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro. in: Dzankic, J., Keil, S. and Kmezic, M. (ed.) The Europeanisation of the Western Balkans - A Failure in EU Conditionality? London Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 181-206
Introduction – the europeanisation of the Western Balkans
Dzankic, J., Keil, S. and Kmezic, M. 2018. Introduction – the europeanisation of the Western Balkans. in: Dzankic, J., Keil, S. and Kmezic, M. (ed.) The Europeanisation of the Western Balkans - A Failure in EU Conditionality? London Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 1-14
Shades of federalism, volume 2
Keil, S. and Munz, A. Keil, S. and Munz, A. (ed.) 2018. Shades of federalism, volume 2. Yangon Hanns Seidel Foundation.
Shades of federalism - volume 1
Keil, S. Keil, S. and Munz, A. (ed.) 2018. Shades of federalism - volume 1. Yangon Hanns Seidel Foundation.
Föderalismus in Bosnien und Herzegowina
Keil, S. 2017. Föderalismus in Bosnien und Herzegowina. in: Flessenkemper, T. and Moll, N. (ed.) Das Politische System Bosnien und Herzegowinas - Herausforderungen zwischen Dayton-Friendsabkommen und EU Annäherung Wiesbaden Springer VS.
Decentralization as a tool for conflict resolution
Keil, S. and Anderson, P. 2018. Decentralization as a tool for conflict resolution. in: Detterbeck, K. and Hepburn, E. (ed.) Handbook of Territorial Politics Cheltenham and Northampton Edward Elgar. pp. 89-106
The business of state capture and the rise of authoritarianism in Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia
Keil, S. 2018. The business of state capture and the rise of authoritarianism in Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia. Southeastern Europe. 42 (1), pp. 59-82.
The business of state capture in the Western Balkans an introduction
Perry, V. and Keil, S. 2018. The business of state capture in the Western Balkans an introduction. Southeastern Europe. 42 (1), pp. 1-14.
Intergovernmental relations: meaning and relevance for conflict management
Heinemann-Gruder, A., Keil, S., Woelk, J. and Kossler, K. 2017. Intergovernmental relations: meaning and relevance for conflict management. in: Buehler, H., Luther, S. and Siegner, M. (ed.) Federalism and Conflict Management Munich Hanns Seidel Foundation.
In search of functionality and acceptance: the distribution of competences in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Keil, S. and Woelk, J. 2017. In search of functionality and acceptance: the distribution of competences in Bosnia and Herzegovina. in: Karlhofer, F. and Pallaver, G. (ed.) Federal Power-Sharing in Europe Baden Baden Nomos.
The role of discursive consistency in EU foreign policy: an analysis of EU enlargement policy toward the Western Balkans
Arkan, Z. and Keil, S. 2016. The role of discursive consistency in EU foreign policy: an analysis of EU enlargement policy toward the Western Balkans. in: Carey, H. (ed.) The Challenges of European Governance in the Age of Economic Stagnation, Immigration, and Refugees Lanham, Boulder, New York, London Lexington Books. pp. 393-404
The Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Kosovo
Keil, S. 2017. The Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Kosovo. European Review of International Studies. 4 (2-3), pp. 5-30.
Federalism: a tool for conflict resolution?
Anderson, P. and Keil, S. 2017. Federalism: a tool for conflict resolution? Online: Website Project 50 Shades of Federalism.
State-sponsored populism and the rise of populistgovernance: the case of Montenegro
Dzankic, J. and Keil, S. 2017. State-sponsored populism and the rise of populistgovernance: the case of Montenegro. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies. 19 (4), pp. 403-418.
Auf der Suche nach einem funktionsfähigen, akzeptierten Gesamtsystem: Kompetenzverteilung zwischen Staat und Entitäten in Bosnien und Herzegowina
Keil, S. and Woelk, J. 2016. Auf der Suche nach einem funktionsfähigen, akzeptierten Gesamtsystem: Kompetenzverteilung zwischen Staat und Entitäten in Bosnien und Herzegowina. in: Gamper, A., Bussjaeger, P., Karlhofer, F., Pallaver, G. and Obwexer, W. (ed.) Föderale Kompetenzverteilung in Europa Baden Baden Nomos.
Using Geras to understand the Syrian refugee crisis
Bates, D. and Keil, S. 2016. Using Geras to understand the Syrian refugee crisis.
Minority nationalism and the European Union: the cases of Scotland and Catalonia
Anderson, P. and Keil, S. 2016. Minority nationalism and the European Union: the cases of Scotland and Catalonia. L'Europe en Formation. 379 (1), pp. 40-57.
Conclusion: the politics of numbers – censuses in the post-Yugoslav states
Keil, S. 2015. Conclusion: the politics of numbers – censuses in the post-Yugoslav states. Contemporary Southeastern Europe. 2 (2), pp. 176-183.
Introduction: the politics of numbers in the post-Yugoslav states
Keil, S. and Perry, V. 2015. Introduction: the politics of numbers in the post-Yugoslav states. Contemporary Southeastern Europe. 2 (2), pp. 42-49.
The political conditions of economic development in the Western Balkans
Keil, S. 2015. The political conditions of economic development in the Western Balkans. Sudosteuropa Mitteilungen. 55 (2), pp. 82-94.
Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 years after Dayton
Keil, S. and Perry, V. 2015. Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 years after Dayton. International Peacekeeping. 22 (5), pp. 1-8.
Power-sharing success and failures in the Western Balkans
Keil, S. 2015. Power-sharing success and failures in the Western Balkans. in: Keil, S. and Perry, V. (ed.) State-Building and Democratization in Bosnia and Herzegovina Farnham Ashgate. pp. 193-212
Introduction: state-building and democratization in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Keil, S. and Perry, V. 2015. Introduction: state-building and democratization in Bosnia and Herzegovina. in: Keil, S. and Perry, V. (ed.) State-Building and Democratization in Bosnia and Herzegovina Farnham Ashgate. pp. 1-14
The European Union as a federal project
Keil, S. and Bransden, S. 2015. The European Union as a federal project. in: Gagnon, A., Keil, S. and Mueller, S. (ed.) Understanding Federalism and Federation Farnham Ashgate. pp. 215-232
Introduction
Gagnon, A., Keil, S. and Mueller, S. 2015. Introduction. in: Gagnon, A., Keil, S. and Mueller, S. (ed.) Understanding Federalism and Federation Farnham Ashgate. pp. 1-10
Social protest, political change and democratisation in Ukraine
Keil, S., Bates, D. and Ogilvie, M. 2015. Social protest, political change and democratisation in Ukraine. in: Price, S. and Sanz Sabido, R. (ed.) Contemporary Protest and the Legacy of Dissent London Rowman and Littlefield.
Religious pluralism and multinational federalism in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Keil, S. 2014. Religious pluralism and multinational federalism in Bosnia and Herzegovina. in: Requejo, F. and Nagel, K. (ed.) Politics of Religion and Nationalism Routledge. pp. 80-92
Back to square one? An analysis of the 2014 General Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Keil, S. and Perry, V. 2015. Back to square one? An analysis of the 2014 General Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Electoral Studies. 38, pp. 82-87.
Bosnia and Herzegovina twenty years after Dayton: complexity born of paradoxes
Keil, S. and Kudlenko, A. 2015. Bosnia and Herzegovina twenty years after Dayton: complexity born of paradoxes. International Peacekeeping. 22 (5), pp. 1-19.
The Europeanization of national constitutions in south east Europe
Keil, S. and Nikolic, D. 2014. The Europeanization of national constitutions in south east Europe. Southeastern Europe. 38 (1), pp. 87-111.
Babies, parks and citizen dissatisfaction: social protests in Bosnia and Herzegovina and their long-term effects
Keil, S. and Moore, T. 2014. Babies, parks and citizen dissatisfaction: social protests in Bosnia and Herzegovina and their long-term effects. All Azimuth: A Journal of Foreign Policy and Peace. 3 (1), pp. 55-64.
Conclusion: theory and practice of EU member-state building in the western Balkans
Keil, S. and Arkan, Z. 2014. Conclusion: theory and practice of EU member-state building in the western Balkans. in: Keil, S. and Arkan, Z. (ed.) The EU and Member State Building: European Foreign Policy in the Western Balkans Routledge.
The limits of normative power? EU member state-building in the western Balkans
Keil, S. and Arkan, Z. 2014. The limits of normative power? EU member state-building in the western Balkans. in: Keil, S. and Arkan, Z. (ed.) The EU and Member State Building: European Foreign Policy in the Western Balkans London Routledge.
Introduction
Keil, S. and Arkan, Z. 2014. Introduction. in: Keil, S. and Arkan, Z. (ed.) The EU and Member State Building: European Foreign Policy in the Western Balkans London Routledge.
Legal misunderstandings, false normative hopes and the ignorance of political reality. A commentary on the recent ESI report “Lost in the Bosnian Labyrinth”
Keil, S. 2013. Legal misunderstandings, false normative hopes and the ignorance of political reality. A commentary on the recent ESI report “Lost in the Bosnian Labyrinth”.
Building a federation within a federation: the curious case of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Keil, S. 2013. Building a federation within a federation: the curious case of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. L'Europe en Formation.
A security community in the Balkans? The foreign policies of the post-Yugoslav states
Keil, S. and Stahl, B. 2013. A security community in the Balkans? The foreign policies of the post-Yugoslav states. Sudosteuropa Mitteilungen. 2/2013, pp. 14-25.
The territoriality of fiscal solidarity: comparing Swiss equalisation with European Union structural funding
Mueller, S. and Keil, S. 2013. The territoriality of fiscal solidarity: comparing Swiss equalisation with European Union structural funding. Perspectives on Federalism. 5 (1), pp. 122-148.
Europeanization, state-building and democratization in the Western Balkans
Keil, S. 2013. Europeanization, state-building and democratization in the Western Balkans. Nationalities Papers. 41 (3), pp. 343-353.
Federalism as a tool of conflict resolution: the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Keil, S. 2012. Federalism as a tool of conflict resolution: the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Le Europe en Formation. 54 (363), pp. 205-218.
The OSCE mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina: testing the limits of ownership
Perry, V. and Keil, S. 2013. The OSCE mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina: testing the limits of ownership. Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity. 41 (3), pp. 371-394.
Power-sharing revisited: lessons learned in the Balkans
Bieber, F. and Keil, S. 2009. Power-sharing revisited: lessons learned in the Balkans. Review of Central and East European Law. 34 (4), pp. 337-360.
Alter Wein in neuen Schläuchen?- Konkordanzdemokratie im Westlichen Balkan
Keil, S. 2012. Alter Wein in neuen Schläuchen?- Konkordanzdemokratie im Westlichen Balkan. in: Krahnenpohl, U. and Koeppl, S. (ed.) Konkordanzdemokratie: Ein Demokratietyp Der Vergangenheit? Frankfurt Nomos.
Von Dayton über Sarajewo nach Brüssel
Keil, S. 2009. Von Dayton über Sarajewo nach Brüssel. in: Kurth, H. (ed.) Bosnien und Herzegowina 2014 – Wo Wollen Wir Hin? Sarajevo Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Bosnia and Herzegovina. pp. 296-320
Social policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina between state-building, democratization and Europeanization
Keil, S. 2011. Social policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina between state-building, democratization and Europeanization. in: Dehnert, S. and Stambolieva, M. (ed.) Welfare States in Transition: Twenty Years After the Yugoslav Welfare Model Sofia Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Bulgaria. pp. 41-57
The Bosnian crisis and the independence of Kosovo
Bieber, F. and Keil, S. 2011. The Bosnian crisis and the independence of Kosovo. in: Hysa, H. and Janjic, D. (ed.) Kosovo: Independence, Status, Perspectives: Adjusting Regional Policies of Ethnicity and Borders A Longo Editore.
Multinational federalism in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Keil, S. 2013. Multinational federalism in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ashgate.