Measuring precognitive effects using a fast implicit and fast explicit task

Conference paper


Vernon, D. 2019. Measuring precognitive effects using a fast implicit and fast explicit task.
AuthorsVernon, D.
TypeConference paper
Description

There has been a dramatic growth in the use of modified cognitive paradigms to test whether priming or practice in the future can influence performance in the present. This has led some to suggest that fast implicit type tasks are more effective as they rely less on conscious cognitive processes. However, this view is neither consistent nor clear. For instance, Bem (2011) reported more robust precognitive effects using a slower explicit recall task (i.e., Expts. 8 & 9). Hence, the aim of this study was to conduct two fast thinking tasks, one that relies predominantly on implicit processes and one that incorporates more explicit processes and examine which of these two tasks elicits the most robust precognitive effect. The fast thinking implicit task selected was a speeded version of the precognitive preference task using erotic images which involves presenting the participant with two hidden target locations on a screen, usually depicted by two curtained areas, and requiring them to select the location with the hidden target picture behind it. The fast thinking explicit task was an explicit precognitive recognition task. In essence, this is a standard explicit recognition task with an additional ‘precognitive’ twist. The traditional recognition task has a study phase, during which stimuli are initially presented, followed by a test phase when a selection of the original stimuli along with new unseen items are presented and the participant needs to recognise the ‘old’ (i.e., seen before) and ‘new’ (i.e., not seen before) items. The precognitive twist is that following on from the test phase there will be a post-test practise phase during which half of the ‘old’ items will be presented again with an emphasis on practise and re-processing. The study was pre-registered at the Koestler Unit (https://koestlerunit.wordpress.com/study-registry/) reference #1036.

A total 166 of participants completed the implicit preference task (20 Male and 145 Female, with 1 failing to provide information on gender), aged 18y to 48y (M:20.8y SD: 4.8y), and one hundred and fifty nine participants completed the explicit recognition task (21 Male and 137 Female, with 1 failing to provide information on gender), aged 18y to 46y (M:20.9y SD: 4.3y).

Response time data was initially cleaned by removing any outliers using a low cut-off of 200ms or above 2.5 Sd from the mean, in a non-recursive manner (see Van Selst & Jolicoeur, 1994). For response times and accuracy, the parametric assumption of normality was checked using both the Shapiro-Wilk test and values of skewness and kurtosis (e.g., DeCarlo 1997; Field, 2013; Razali & Wah, 2011). If all were violated non-parametric tests were used. Data from the implicit preference task and the explicit recognition task were analysed separately and all statistical tests were two-tailed.

For the implicit preference task the first confirmatory hypothesis tested whether participants would correctly identify the location of an Erotic image in less time than a Neutral image. Analysis using a Wilcoxon non-parametric test showed no difference in median response times between Erotic and Neutral images, Z=-0.517, p=0.61, r=-0.02. The second confirmatory hypothesis tested whether participants would be more accurate at identifying the location of Erotic images compared to chance (i.e., 50%). A one sample t test comparing accuracy of responses to the Erotic images to chance showed no significant difference, t(165)=0.363, p=0.717, 95% CI (-0.21, 0.31), d=0.02.

For the explicit recognition task the first confirmatory hypothesis tested whether participants would correctly recognise words that would be repeated later (i.e., Precognitively) in less time than those not repeated. Analysis using a repeated measures t test showed no difference in response times between Repeated and Not Repeated conditions (1073.8ms and 10859.9ms respectively), t(158)=1.212, p=0.227, 95% CI (-42.42, 10.15), d=0.06. The second confirmatory hypothesis tested whether participants would be more accurate (i.e., exhibit greater sensitivity) at recognising words which would be repeated later (i.e., Precognitively) compared to those not repeated. Analysis using a Wilcoxon non-parametric test showed no difference in median sensitivity levels between Repeated and Non-Repeated words, Z=-0.4561, p=0.65, r=-0.02.

Overall data from the implicit preference task and the explicit recognition task show no evidence of any precognitive effects. This raises the issue of whether there is no effect to find or whether this study simply failed to elicit them.

Year2019
Conference43rd International SPR Annual Conference
Official URLhttps://www.spr.ac.uk/publications-recordings/journal-society-psychical-research
FunderSPR
Publication process dates
Deposited26 Sep 2019
Output statusPublished
Page range29-30
Publication dates
Print20 Sep 2019
Accepted author manuscript
Permalink -

https://repository.canterbury.ac.uk/item/890yy/measuring-precognitive-effects-using-a-fast-implicit-and-fast-explicit-task

  • 16
    total views
  • 6
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Using virtual reality to test for telepathy: A proof-of-concept study
Vernon, D. 2020. Using virtual reality to test for telepathy: A proof-of-concept study. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 34 (4), pp. 683-702. https://doi.org/10.31275/2020/1833
Dark cognition: Evidence of psi and its implications for consciousness
Vernon, D. 2020. Dark cognition: Evidence of psi and its implications for consciousness. London Taylor & Francis.
A test of telepathy using immersive virtual reality
Vernon, D., Sandford, T. and Moyo, E. 2019. A test of telepathy using immersive virtual reality.
Testing precognition using a novel computer driving game
Vernon, D. and Ivencevic, L. 2018. Testing precognition using a novel computer driving game.
Precognitive priming of compound remote associates: using an implicit creative insight task to elicit precognition
Vernon, D. 2018. Precognitive priming of compound remote associates: using an implicit creative insight task to elicit precognition.
Test of reward contingent precall
Vernon, D. 2018. Test of reward contingent precall. Journal of Parapsychology. 82 (1), pp. 8-23. https://doi.org/10.30891/jopar.2018.01.02.
Further explorations of enhancing creative problem solving via structured thinking techniques
Hocking, I. and Vernon, D. 2017. Further explorations of enhancing creative problem solving via structured thinking techniques.
The right tool for the right task: structured techniques prove less effective on an ill-defined problem finding task
Hocking, I. and Vernon, D. 2017. The right tool for the right task: structured techniques prove less effective on an ill-defined problem finding task. Thinking Skills and Creativity. 26, pp. 84-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2017.08.001
Testing to see whether participants with high levels of belief in psi can precall highly emotive images
Vernon, D. 2017. Testing to see whether participants with high levels of belief in psi can precall highly emotive images.
Attempting to elicit a precall effect using emotive images and participants with high levels of belief in psi
Vernon, D. 2017. Attempting to elicit a precall effect using emotive images and participants with high levels of belief in psi. Journal of Consciousness Studies. 24 (11-12), pp. 216-237.
Exploring the effect of a contingent cash based reward on the precall of arousing images
Vernon, D. 2017. Exploring the effect of a contingent cash based reward on the precall of arousing images.
How to win the lottery: Can using precall help in radomized prize draws?
Vernon, D. 2017. How to win the lottery: Can using precall help in radomized prize draws? Paranormal Review. Spring (82), p. 23.
The golden path: first steps in establishing order for two creative problem solving techniques
Hocking, I. and Vernon, D. 2017. The golden path: first steps in establishing order for two creative problem solving techniques. Edinburgh Napier University
Enhancing creative problem solving and creative self-efficacy: a preliminary study
Dempster, T., Hocking, I., Vernon, D. and Snyder, H. 2017. Enhancing creative problem solving and creative self-efficacy: a preliminary study. Edinburgh Napier University
Exploring precall using arousing images and utilising a memory recall practise task on-line
Vernon, D. 2017. Exploring precall using arousing images and utilising a memory recall practise task on-line. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research.
A bridge too far: conceptual distance and creative ideation
Hocking, I. and Vernon, D. 2017. A bridge too far: conceptual distance and creative ideation. Creativity: Theories, Research, Applications. 4 (2), pp. 333-352. https://doi.org/10.1515/ctra-2017-0017
A matter of perspective: the impact of near and far conceptual distance on creative problem solving
Hocking, I. and Vernon, D. 2016. A matter of perspective: the impact of near and far conceptual distance on creative problem solving.
Which cues work best? An examination of two structured thinking tools using eye-tracking analysis
Hocking, I., Vernon, D., Rehal, N. and Valkova, M. 2016. Which cues work best? An examination of two structured thinking tools using eye-tracking analysis.
Exploring precall using arousing images and utilising a memory recall practice task on-line
Vernon, D. 2016. Exploring precall using arousing images and utilising a memory recall practice task on-line.
Either here or there: exploring conceptual distance using a novel clock face paradigm in a creative problem solving task
Vernon, D. and Hocking, I. 2016. Either here or there: exploring conceptual distance using a novel clock face paradigm in a creative problem solving task.
Six Thinking Hats vs. Six Good Men: does the order of the elements matter?
Vernon, D. and Hocking, I. 2016. Six Thinking Hats vs. Six Good Men: does the order of the elements matter?
The influence of self-regulation technique on the efficiency of voluntary increasing alpha power training
Bazanova, O., Lazareva, O. and Vernon, D. 2014. The influence of self-regulation technique on the efficiency of voluntary increasing alpha power training.
Neurofeedback: reviewing the methodology
Bazanova, O. and Vernon, D. 2014. Neurofeedback: reviewing the methodology.
Comparing the effectiveness of subliminal single-word, and multi-word primes on working memory performance
Reeves, S. and Vernon, D. 2014. Comparing the effectiveness of subliminal single-word, and multi-word primes on working memory performance.
An evidence-based review of creative problem solving tools: a practitioner’s resource
Vernon, D., Hocking, I. and Tyler, T. 2016. An evidence-based review of creative problem solving tools: a practitioner’s resource. Human Resource Development Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484316641512
Beyond belief: structured techniques prove more effective than a placebo intervention in a problem construction task
Vernon, D. and Hocking, I. 2016. Beyond belief: structured techniques prove more effective than a placebo intervention in a problem construction task. Thinking Skills and Creativity. 19, pp. 153-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2015.10.009
Applying structured techniques in a problem construction task
Hocking, I. and Vernon, D. 2015. Applying structured techniques in a problem construction task. University of Toronto
Thinking hats and good men: structured techniques in a problem finding task
Hocking, I. and Vernon, D. 2014. Thinking hats and good men: structured techniques in a problem finding task. University of Nottingham
Have you tried 'brain breathing'? Structured thinking and problem construction
Hocking, I. and Vernon, D. 2015. Have you tried 'brain breathing'? Structured thinking and problem construction. University of Kent
Exploring precognition using a repetition priming paradigm
Vernon, D. 2015. Exploring precognition using a repetition priming paradigm. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. 79 (2) (919), pp. 65-79.
Interpreting EEG alpha activity
Bazanova, O. and Vernon, D. 2014. Interpreting EEG alpha activity. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 44, pp. 94-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.05.007
Comparing structured thinking tools on a problem construction task using an ill-defined problem
Vernon, D. and Hocking, I. 2015. Comparing structured thinking tools on a problem construction task using an ill-defined problem. University of Kent
Thinking hats and good men: structured techniques in a problem construction task
Vernon, D. and Hocking, I. 2014. Thinking hats and good men: structured techniques in a problem construction task. Thinking Skills and Creativity. 14, pp. 41-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2014.07.001
Asymmetric activation of the anterior cerebral cortex in recipients of IRECA: preliminary evidence for the energetic effects of an intention-based treatment modality on human neurophysiology.
Pike, C., Vernon, D. and Hald, L. 2014. Asymmetric activation of the anterior cerebral cortex in recipients of IRECA: preliminary evidence for the energetic effects of an intention-based treatment modality on human neurophysiology. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 20 (10), pp. 780-786. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2014.0074
Exploring modality switching effects in negated sentences: further evidence for grounded representations
Hald, L., Hocking, I., Vernon, D., Marshall, J. and Garnham, A. 2013. Exploring modality switching effects in negated sentences: further evidence for grounded representations. Frontiers in Psychology. 4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00093
Tracking EEG changes to alpha and beta binaural beats
Vernon, D., Peryer, G., Louch, J. and Shaw, M. 2014. Tracking EEG changes to alpha and beta binaural beats. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 93 (1), pp. 134-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.10.008
A novel self-guided approach to alpha activity training using water based electrodes
Van Boxtel, G., Denissen, A., Jager, M., Vernon, D., Dekker, M., Mihajlovic, V. and Sitskoorn, M. 2012. A novel self-guided approach to alpha activity training using water based electrodes. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 83 (3), pp. 282-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.11.004
Neurofeedback: refining the methodology of brain-computer interface training.
Vernon, D. and Dempster, T. 2012. Neurofeedback: refining the methodology of brain-computer interface training. in: Orsucci, F. and Sala, N. (ed.) Complexity Science, Living Systems and Reflexing Interfaces: New Models and Perspectives Hershey, PA, USA. Idea Group Inc. pp. 92-111
Modality switching and negation: ERP evidence for modality-specific simulations during negation processing
Hald, L., Hocking, I., Marshall, J., Vernon, D. and Garnham, A. 2011. Modality switching and negation: ERP evidence for modality-specific simulations during negation processing.
Human potential: exploring techniques used to enhance human performance
Vernon, D. 2009. Human potential: exploring techniques used to enhance human performance. London Routledge.
The effects of distinct training schedules on participants’ ability to alter alpha activity via neurofeedback: a preliminary study
Vernon, D. and Dempster, T. 2008. The effects of distinct training schedules on participants’ ability to alter alpha activity via neurofeedback: a preliminary study.
Neurofeedback as a mechanism to enhance the performance of healthy participants
Vernon, D. 2009. Neurofeedback as a mechanism to enhance the performance of healthy participants.
EEG biofeedback as a mechanism to enhance performance
Vernon, D. 2010. EEG biofeedback as a mechanism to enhance performance.
Refining the methodology of alpha NFT and exploring its effect on cognition and mood
Vernon, D. 2010. Refining the methodology of alpha NFT and exploring its effect on cognition and mood.
Refining the methodology of EEG biofeedback
Vernon, D. 2010. Refining the methodology of EEG biofeedback.
EEG biofeedback and optimal performance
Vernon, D. 2010. EEG biofeedback and optimal performance.
Cortical habituation of schizotypal individuals: a differential pattern for unreality subtypes
Gruzelier, J., Vernon, D., Haenschel, C. and Dwivedi, P. 2002. Cortical habituation of schizotypal individuals: a differential pattern for unreality subtypes. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 45 (1-2), p. 79.
Validating the efficacy of neurofeedback for optimising performance
Gruzelier, J., Egner, T. and Vernon, D. 2006. Validating the efficacy of neurofeedback for optimising performance. Progress in Brain Research. 159, pp. 421-431. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(06)59027-2
The effect of distinct neurofeedback training protocols on working memory, mental rotation and attention
Vernon, D., Egner, T., Cooper, N., Compton, T., Neilands, C., Sheri, A. and Gruzelier, J. 2004. The effect of distinct neurofeedback training protocols on working memory, mental rotation and attention. Journal of Neurotherapy. 8 (1), pp. 83-102.
Neurofeedback as a treatment for ADHD: a methodological review with implications for future research
Vernon, D., Frick, A. and Gruzelier, J. 2004. Neurofeedback as a treatment for ADHD: a methodological review with implications for future research. Journal of Neurotherapy. 8 (2), pp. 53-82. https://doi.org/10.1300/J184v08n02_04
The role of colour in implicit and explicit memory performance
Vernon, D. and Lloyd-Jones, T. 2003. The role of colour in implicit and explicit memory performance. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A. 56 (5), pp. 779-802. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724980244000684
The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance
Vernon, D., Egner, T., Cooper, N., Compton, T., Neilands, C., Sheri, A. and Gruzelier, J. 2003. The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 47 (1), pp. 75-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8760(02)00091-0
Semantic interference from visual object recognition on visual imagery
Lloyd-Jones, T. and Vernon, D. 2003. Semantic interference from visual object recognition on visual imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 29 (4), pp. 563-580. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.29.4.563
Dynamics of metacognitive judgments: Pre- and postretrieval mechanisms.
Vernon, D. and Usher, M. 2003. Dynamics of metacognitive judgments: Pre- and postretrieval mechanisms. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 29 (3), pp. 339-346. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.29.3.339
Slow habituation of induced gamma and beta oscillations in association with unreality experiences in schizotypy
Vernon, D., Haenschel, C., Dwivedi, P. and Gruzelier, J. 2005. Slow habituation of induced gamma and beta oscillations in association with unreality experiences in schizotypy. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 56 (1), pp. 15-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2004.09.012
Event-related brain potential correlates of human auditory sensory memory-trace formation
Haenschel, C., Vernon, D., Dwivedi, P., Gruzelier, J. and Baldewig, T. 2005. Event-related brain potential correlates of human auditory sensory memory-trace formation. Journal of Neuroscience. 25 (45), pp. 10494-10501. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1227-05.2005
Can neurofeedback training enhance performance? An evaluation of the evidence with implications for future research
Vernon, D. 2005. Can neurofeedback training enhance performance? An evaluation of the evidence with implications for future research. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. 30 (4), pp. 347-364. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10484-005-8421-4
Neurofeedback: using computer technology to alter brain functioning
Vernon, D. 2008. Neurofeedback: using computer technology to alter brain functioning. in: Orsucci, F. and Sala, N. (ed.) Reflexing Interfaces: The Complex Coevolution of Information Technology Ecosystems Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA IGI Global. pp. 94-108
Alpha neurofeedback training for performance enhancement: reviewing the methodology
Vernon, D., Dempster, T., Bazanova, O., Rutterford, N., Pasqualini, M. and Andersen, S. 2009. Alpha neurofeedback training for performance enhancement: reviewing the methodology. Journal of Neurotherapy. 13 (4), pp. 214-227. https://doi.org/10.1080/10874200903334397
Effects of delay on color priming for natural objects
Vernon, D. and Lloyd-Jones, T. 2007. Effects of delay on color priming for natural objects. Psychological Reports. 100 (1), pp. 275-293. https://doi.org/10.2466/PR0.100.1.275-293
Identifying indices of learning for alpha neurofeedback training
Dempster, T. and Vernon, D. 2009. Identifying indices of learning for alpha neurofeedback training. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. 34 (4), pp. 309-328. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10484-009-9112-3
Electroencephalographic biofeedback as a mechanism to alter mood, creativity and artistic performance
Vernon, D. and Gruzelier, J. 2008. Electroencephalographic biofeedback as a mechanism to alter mood, creativity and artistic performance. in: De Luca, B. (ed.) Mind-Body and Relaxation Research Focus New York, USA Nova Science Publishers. pp. 149-164