A novel PD-1/PD-L1 pathway-related seven-gene signature for the development and validation of the prognosis prediction model for breast cancer

Journal article


Peng Zhang, Jingjing Yang, Xiaolong Zhong, Heloisa Sobreiro, Selistre-de-Araujo, Stergios Boussios, Yongneng Ma and Hua Fang 2024. A novel PD-1/PD-L1 pathway-related seven-gene signature for the development and validation of the prognosis prediction model for breast cancer. Translational Cancer Research. 13 (3). https://doi.org/10.21037/tcr-23-2270
AuthorsPeng Zhang, Jingjing Yang, Xiaolong Zhong, Heloisa Sobreiro, Selistre-de-Araujo, Stergios Boussios, Yongneng Ma and Hua Fang
Abstract

Background: Breast cancer (BC/BRCA) is the most common carcinoma in women. The average 5-year survival rate of BC patients with stage IV disease is 26%. A considerable proportion of patients still do not receive effective therapy. It is an unmet need to identify novel biomarkers for BC patients. Herein, we evaluated whether the programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) status is associated with the clinical outcomes of BC, based on data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

Methods: Clinical and transcriptome data of BC patients were obtained from TCGA dataset, and prognostic genes in BC patients were identified, as well as the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway mainly associating with the BC patients. Following the execution of the consensus clustering algorithm, BC patients were segregated into two clusters, and subsequent investigation of the potential mechanisms between them was carried out. A comparison of ferroptosis and N6-methyladenosine (m6A) was conducted between the two groups with the greatest difference in prognosis. Based on least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analysis, a signature associated with the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway was developed, and the prognosis outcome and the predictive accuracy of the signature model were further assessed.

Results: Prognostic genes in BC patients were studied using TCGA data and it was found that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway was most associated with the BC patients. Then, a low-risk (C1) group and a high-risk (C2) group of BC patients were constructed based on a PD-1/PD-L1 pathway-related signature. The functional analyses suggested that the underlying mechanisms between these groups were mainly associated with immune-related pathways. We found that ferroptosis and m6A were significantly different between the two groups. A PD-1/PD-L1 pathway-related gene signature was further developed to predict survival of BC patients, including 7 genes [mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 (MAP2K6), NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (NFKBIA), NFKB Inhibitor Epsilon (NFKBIE), Interferon gamma (IFNG), Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter protein (TIRAP), IkappaB kinase (CHUK), and Casein kinase 2 alpha 3 gene (CSNK2A3)]. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed to further assess the prognostic values of these 7 genes. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year values of the areas under the curve (AUCs) for overall survival were 0.651, 0.658, and 0.653 in this seven gene signature model, respectively.

Conclusions: PD-1/PD-L1 pathway-related subtypes of BC were identified, which were closely associated with the immune microenvironment, the ferroptosis status, and m6A in BC patients. The gene signature involved in the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway might help to make a distinction and predict prognosis in BC patients.

KeywordsBreast cancer ; Prognosis; Programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death ligand pathway (PD-1/PD-L1 pathway); PD-1/PD-L1 pathway-related signature; Biomarkers
Year2024
JournalTranslational Cancer Research
Journal citation13 (3)
PublisherAME Publishing
ISSN2218-676X
2219-6803
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.21037/tcr-23-2270
Official URLhttps://tcr.amegroups.org/article/view/84605/html
Publication dates
Print27 Mar 2024
Publication process dates
Accepted01 Mar 2024
Deposited13 Jun 2024
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
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https://repository.canterbury.ac.uk/item/981v8/a-novel-pd-1-pd-l1-pathway-related-seven-gene-signature-for-the-development-and-validation-of-the-prognosis-prediction-model-for-breast-cancer

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