Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: internal validity and reliability for New Zealand pre-schoolers

Journal article


Kersten, P., Vandal, A. C., Elder, H. and McPherson, K. M. 2018. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: internal validity and reliability for New Zealand pre-schoolers. BMJ Open. 8 (4). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021551
AuthorsKersten, P., Vandal, A. C., Elder, H. and McPherson, K. M.
Abstract

Objectives

This observational study examines the internal construct validity, internal consistency and cross-informant reliability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a New Zealand preschool population across four ethnicity strata (New Zealand European, Māori, Pasifika, Asian).

Design

Rasch analysis was employed to examine internal validity on a subsample of 1000 children. Internal consistency (n=29 075) and cross-informant reliability (n=17 006) were examined using correlations, intraclass correlation coefficients and Cronbach’s alpha on the sample available for such analyses.

Setting and participants

Data were used from a national SDQ database provided by the funder, pertaining to New Zealand domiciled children aged 4 and 5 and scored by their parents and teachers.

Results

The five subscales do not fit the Rasch model (as indicated by the overall fit statistics), contain items that are biased (differential item functioning (DIF)) by key variables, suffer from a floor and ceiling effect and have unacceptable internal consistency. After dealing with DIF, the Total Difficulty scale does fit the Rasch model and has good internal consistency. Parent/teacher inter-rater reliability was unacceptably low for all subscales.

Conclusion

The five SDQ subscales are not valid and not suitable for use in their own right in New Zealand. We have provided a conversion table for the Total Difficulty scale, which takes account of bias by ethnic group. Clinicians should use this conversion table in order to reconcile DIF by culture in final scores. It is advisable to use both parents and teachers’ feedback when considering children’s needs for referral of further assessment. Future work should examine whether validity is impacted by different language versions used in the same country.

KeywordsStrengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; SDQ; Cultural equivalence; Rasch model; Emotional and behavioural screening; New Zealand
Year2018
JournalBMJ Open
Journal citation8 (4)
PublisherBMJ Publishing Group
ISSN2044-6055
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021551
Official URLhttps://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/4/e021551
Publication dates
Online21 Apr 2018
Publication process dates
Accepted27 Mar 2018
Deposited21 Apr 2022
Accepted author manuscript
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Permalink -

https://repository.canterbury.ac.uk/item/90yx0/strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-internal-validity-and-reliability-for-new-zealand-pre-schoolers

Download files


Accepted author manuscript
e021551.full.pdf
License: CC BY-NC 4.0
File access level: Open

  • 2
    total views
  • 0
    total downloads
  • 2
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Collegial surface acting emotional labour, burnout, and intention to leave in novice and pre-retirement nurses in the United Kingdom: a cross sectional study.
Theodosius, C., Koulougliotti, C., Kersten, P., Rosten, C., Clarke, A. and Warren, Z. 2021. Collegial surface acting emotional labour, burnout, and intention to leave in novice and pre-retirement nurses in the United Kingdom: a cross sectional study. Nursing Open. 8 (1), pp. 463-472. https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.649
Design considerations for a Multiple Sclerosis Fatigue mobile app MS Energize: A pragmatic iterative approach using usability testing and resonance checks.
Van Kessel, K., Babbage, D., Kersten, P., Drown, J., Sezier, A., Thomas, P. and Thomas, S. 2021. Design considerations for a Multiple Sclerosis Fatigue mobile app MS Energize: A pragmatic iterative approach using usability testing and resonance checks. Internet Interventions. 24, p. 100371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2021.100371
The immediate and subsequent impact of a first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation, results from a national cohort study
Olds, M., Ellis, R., Parmar, P. and Kersten, P. 2020. The immediate and subsequent impact of a first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation, results from a national cohort study. Shoulder and Elbow. 13 (2), pp. 223-232. https://doi.org/10.1177/1758573220921484
Predicting Recurrent Instability of the Shoulder (PRIS): A valid prediction tool of patients who will not have repeat shoulder instability after first-Time traumatic anterior dislocation
Olds, M., Ellis, R. and Kersten, P. 2020. Predicting Recurrent Instability of the Shoulder (PRIS): A valid prediction tool of patients who will not have repeat shoulder instability after first-Time traumatic anterior dislocation. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 50 (8), pp. 431-469. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2020.9284
Provision of first contact physiotherapy in primary care across the UK: A survey of the service
Halls, S., Thomas. R., Stott, H., Cupples, M. E., Kersten, P., Cramp, F., Foster, D. and Walsh, N. 2020. Provision of first contact physiotherapy in primary care across the UK: A survey of the service. Physiotherapy. 108, pp. 2-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2020.04.005
Developing clinical expertise in musculoskeletal physiotherapy; Using observed practice to create a valued practice-based collaborative learning cycle
Carr, M., Morris, J. and Kersten, P. 2020. Developing clinical expertise in musculoskeletal physiotherapy; Using observed practice to create a valued practice-based collaborative learning cycle. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice. 50, p. 102278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msksp.2020.102278
Who will redislocate his/her shoulder? Predicting recurrent instability following a first traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation
Olds, M. K., Ellis, R., Parmar, P. and Kersten, P. 2019. Who will redislocate his/her shoulder? Predicting recurrent instability following a first traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation. BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine. 5 (1). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2018-000447
Digitizing a face-to-face group fatigue management program: exploring the views of people with multiple sclerosis and health care professionals via consultation groups and interviews
Thomas, S., Pulman, A., Thomas, P., Collard, S., Jiang, N., Dogan, H., Davies Smith, A., Hourihan, S., Roberts, F., Kersten, P., Pretty, K., Miller, J. K., Stanley, K. and Gay, M. 2019. Digitizing a face-to-face group fatigue management program: exploring the views of people with multiple sclerosis and health care professionals via consultation groups and interviews. JMIR Formative Research. 3 (2). https://doi.org/10.2196/10951
Incidence and outcomes of major trauma in New Zealand: findings from a feasibility study of New Zealand’s first national trauma registry
Czuba, K. J., Kersten, P., Anstiss, D., Kayes, N. M., Gabbe. B. J., Civil, I., Kool, B., Terry, G., Smith, G. A., Rohan, M. and Siegert, R. J. 2019. Incidence and outcomes of major trauma in New Zealand: findings from a feasibility study of New Zealand’s first national trauma registry. The New Zealand Medical Journal. 132 (1494), pp. 26-40.
Optimising the real-world impact of rehabilitation reviews: increasing the relevance and usability of systematic reviews in rehabilitation
Kayes, N., Martin, R. A., Bright, F. A. S., Kersten, P. and Pollock, A. 2019. Optimising the real-world impact of rehabilitation reviews: increasing the relevance and usability of systematic reviews in rehabilitation. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 55 (3), pp. 331-341. https://doi.org/10.23736/S1973-9087.19.05793-9
MS Energize: Field trial of an app for self-management of fatigue for people with multiple sclerosis
Babbage, D., Van Kessel, K., Drown, J., Thomas, S., Sezier, A., Thomas, P. and Kersten, P. 2019. MS Energize: Field trial of an app for self-management of fatigue for people with multiple sclerosis. Internet Interventions. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2019.100291
The Nijmegen Questionnaire: a valid measure for hyperventilation
Li Ogilvie, V., Kayes, N. and Kersten, P. 2019. The Nijmegen Questionnaire: a valid measure for hyperventilation. New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy. 47 (3), pp. 160-171. https://doi.org/10.15619/NZJP/47.3.04
Development of a toolkit to enhance care processes for people with a long-term neurological condition: a qualitative descriptive study
Sezier, A., Mudge, S., Kayes, N., Kersten, P., Payne, D., Harwood, M., Potter, E., Smith, G. and McPherson, K. M. 2018. Development of a toolkit to enhance care processes for people with a long-term neurological condition: a qualitative descriptive study. BMJ Open. 8 (6). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022038
Making sense of recovery after traumatic brain injury through a peer mentoring intervention: a qualitative exploration
Kersten, P., Cummins, C., Kayes, N., Babbage, D., Elder, H., Foster, A., Weatherall, M., Siegert, R. J., Smith, G. and McPherson, K. 2018. Making sense of recovery after traumatic brain injury through a peer mentoring intervention: a qualitative exploration. BMJ Open. 8 (10). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020672
Mobile technology use by people experiencing multiple sclerosis fatigue: survey methodology
Van Kessel, K., Babbage, D. R., Reay, N., Miner-Williams, W. M. and Kersten, P. 2017. Mobile technology use by people experiencing multiple sclerosis fatigue: survey methodology. JMIR mHealth and uHealth. 5 (2). https://doi.org/10.2196/mhealth.6192
Te Waka Kuaka, Rasch analysis of a cultural assessment tool in traumatic brain injury in Māori
Elder, H., Czuba, K., Kersten, P., Caracuel, A. and McPherson, K. 2017. Te Waka Kuaka, Rasch analysis of a cultural assessment tool in traumatic brain injury in Māori. F1000Research. 6 (1034). https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.11500.1
Cross-cultural acceptability and utility of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: views of families
Kersten, P., Dudley, M., Nayar, S., Elder, H., Robertson, H., Tauroa, R. and McPherson, K. M. 2016. Cross-cultural acceptability and utility of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: views of families. BMC Psychiatry. 16 (347). https://doi.org/doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-1063-7
Ordinal-to-interval scale conversion tables and national items for the New Zealand version of the WHOQOL-BREF
Krägeloh, C. U., Billington, D. R., Hsien-Chuan Hsu, P., Feng, X. J., Medvedev, O. N., Kersten, P., Landon, J. and Siegert, R. J. 2016. Ordinal-to-interval scale conversion tables and national items for the New Zealand version of the WHOQOL-BREF. PLoS ONE. 11 (11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166065