Isometric exercise training for the management of blood pressure: A randomised sham-controlled study

Journal article


De Caux, A., Edwards, J., Swift, H., Hurst, P., Wiles, J. and O'Driscoll, J. Isometric exercise training for the management of blood pressure: A randomised sham-controlled study. Physiological Reports.
AuthorsDe Caux, A., Edwards, J., Swift, H., Hurst, P., Wiles, J. and O'Driscoll, J.
Abstract

Isometric exercise training (IET) is increasingly cited for its role in reducing resting blood pressure (BP). Despite this, few studies have investigated a potential sham effect attributing to the success of IET, thus dictating the aim of the present study. Thirty physically inactive males (n=15) and females (n=15) were randomly assigned into 3 groups. The IET group completed a wall-squat intervention at 95% peak heart rate (HR) using a prescribed knee joint angle. The sham group performed a parallel intervention, but at an intensity (<75% peak HR) previously identified to be inefficacious over a 4-week training period. No-intervention controls maintained their normal daily activities. Pre- and post-measures were taken for resting and continuous blood pressure and cardiac autonomic modulation. Resting clinic and continuous beat to beat systolic (-15.2±9.2 and -7.3±5.6 mmHg), diastolic (-4.6±5 and -4.5±5.1) and mean (-7±4.2 and -7.5±5.3) BP, respectively, all significantly decreased in the IET group compared to sham and no-intervention control. The IET group observed a significant decrease in low frequency normalised units of heart rate variability concurrent with a significant increase in high frequency normalised units of heart rate variability compared to both the sham and no-intervention control groups. The findings of the present study reject a non-specific effect and further support the role of IET as an effective anti-hypertensive intervention.

KeywordsIsometric exercise training (IET); Hypertension; Blood pressure
JournalPhysiological Reports
PublisherWiley
ISSN2051-817X
Publication process dates
Accepted27 Oct 2021
Deposited11 Nov 2021
Accepted author manuscript
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Open
Output statusIn press
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Steele, J., Fisher, J., Skivington, M., Dunn, C., Arnold, J., Tew, G., Batterham, A., Nunan, D., O'Driscoll, J., Mann, S., Beedie, C., Jobson, S., Smith, D., Vigotsky, A., Phillips, S., Estabrooks, P. and Winett, R. 2017. A higher effort-based paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health: making the case for a greater emphasis on resistance training. BMC Public Health. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4209-8
Expectations, caffeine and pacing strategy: how positive and negative expectations can influence running performance
Hurst, P. 2014. Expectations, caffeine and pacing strategy: how positive and negative expectations can influence running performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 48 (A3). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-094245.8
Expectancy effects on competitive 5 km time-trial performance
Hurst, P. 2013. Expectancy effects on competitive 5 km time-trial performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47 (17). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093073.15
Reproducibility of outdoor 5 km running time-trial in a competitive environment
Hurst, P. 2013. Reproducibility of outdoor 5 km running time-trial in a competitive environment. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47 (e4). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093073.14
Continuous cardiac autonomic and haemodynamic responses to isometric exercise in pre-hypertensive males
Taylor, K., Wiles, J., Coleman, D., Sharma, R. and O'Driscoll, J. 2017. Continuous cardiac autonomic and haemodynamic responses to isometric exercise in pre-hypertensive males. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (MSSE). https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001271
Acute cardiac functional and mechanical responses to isometric exercise in pre-hypertensive males
O'Driscoll, J., Taylor, K., Wiles, J., Coleman, D. and Sharma, R. 2017. Acute cardiac functional and mechanical responses to isometric exercise in pre-hypertensive males. Physiological Reports. https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13236
Body mass index mortality paradox in chronic kidney disease patients with suspected cardiac chest pain
O'Driscoll, J., Slee, A. and Sharma, R. 2017. Body mass index mortality paradox in chronic kidney disease patients with suspected cardiac chest pain. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle Clinical Reports. 2 (1).
Strongman training – Needs analysis and integration into strength and conditioning programming: part 2.
McManus, A., O'Driscoll, J., Coleman, D. and Wiles, J. 2016. Strongman training – Needs analysis and integration into strength and conditioning programming: part 2. Professional Strength & Conditioning. 44, pp. 7-15.
Strongman training – a rationale for its inclusion in strength & conditioning: part 1
McManus, A., Wiles, J., Coleman, D. and O'Driscoll, J. 2016. Strongman training – a rationale for its inclusion in strength & conditioning: part 1. Professional Strength & Conditioning. 43, pp. 7-18.
Home-based isometric exercise training induced reductions resting blood pressure
Wiles, J., Goldring, N. and Coleman, D. 2016. Home-based isometric exercise training induced reductions resting blood pressure. European Journal of Applied Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-016-3501-0
Development and validation of the Sports Supplements Beliefs Scale
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D. and Beedie, C. 2016. Development and validation of the Sports Supplements Beliefs Scale. Performance Enhancement & Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peh.2016.10.001
Reliability of 5-km running performance in a competitive environment
Hurst, P. and Board, L. 2016. Reliability of 5-km running performance in a competitive environment. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367X.2016.1233421
Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise
Hurst, P., Foad, A. and Beedie, C. 2016. Beliefs versus reality, or beliefs as reality? The placebo effect in sport and exercise. in: Lane, A. (ed.) Sport and Exercise Psychology London Routledge. pp. 325-344
Capitalizing on the placebo component of treatments
Beedie, C., Foad, A. and Hurst, P. 2015. Capitalizing on the placebo component of treatments. Current Sports Medicine Reports (CSMR). 14 (4), pp. 284-287. https://doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0000000000000172
Acute cardiac autonomic responses to an incremental isometric exercise test in pre-hypertensive males
Taylor, K., Wiles, J., Coleman, D., Sharma, R. and O'Driscoll, J. 2016. Acute cardiac autonomic responses to an incremental isometric exercise test in pre-hypertensive males.
Immediate post-isometric exercise cardiovascular responses are associated with training-induced resting systolicblood pressure reductions
Wiles, J., Devereux, G. and Howden, R. 2015. Immediate post-isometric exercise cardiovascular responses are associated with training-induced resting systolicblood pressure reductions. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 115 (2), pp. 327-333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-014-3021-8
Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation over 5 km
Hurst, P., Coleman, D. and Saunders, S. 2015. Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation over 5 km. British Journal of Sports Medicine: International Sports Science + Sports Medicine Conference 2015 Abstracts Newcastle Upon Tyne 8–10th September 2015. 49 (Sup. 2), pp. A6-A6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095576.17
Placebo and nocebo effects during repeat sprint performance
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2016. Placebo and nocebo effects during repeat sprint performance.
Knowledge and experience of placebo effects modifies athletes’ intentions to use sport supplements
Hurst, P., Beedie, C., Coleman, D. and Foad, A. 2016. Knowledge and experience of placebo effects modifies athletes’ intentions to use sport supplements.
Transthoracic echocardiography provides important long-term prognostic information in selected patients undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic repair
O'Driscoll, J., Bahia, S., Gravina, A., Di Fino, S., Thompson, M., Karthikesalingam, A., Holt, P. and Sharma, R. 2016. Transthoracic echocardiography provides important long-term prognostic information in selected patients undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic repair. Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.115.003557
Reverse left ventricular remodelling - effect of cardiac rehabilitation exercise training in myocardial infarction patients with preserved ejection fraction
McGregor, G., Gaze, D., Oxborough, D., O'Driscoll, J. and Shave, R. 2015. Reverse left ventricular remodelling - effect of cardiac rehabilitation exercise training in myocardial infarction patients with preserved ejection fraction. European Journal of Physcial and Rehabilitation Medicine. 52 (3), pp. 370-378.
The prognostic value of dobutamine stress echocardiography amongst British Indian Asian and Afro-Caribbean patients: a comparison with European white patients
O'Driscoll, J., Rossato, C., Gargallo-Fernandez, P., Araco, M., Giannoglou, D., Sharma, S. and Sharma, R. 2015. The prognostic value of dobutamine stress echocardiography amongst British Indian Asian and Afro-Caribbean patients: a comparison with European white patients. Cardiovascular Ultrasound. 13 (36). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12947-015-0028-1
Non-invasive assessment of the autonomic nervous system
O'Driscoll, J. and Sharma, R. 2015. Non-invasive assessment of the autonomic nervous system. International Journal of Clinical Therapeutics and Diagnosis. 3 (3), pp. 85-91.
Differing autonomic responses to dobutamine stress in the presence and absence of myocardial ischaemia
Sharma, R., O'Driscoll, J., Saha, A., Sritharan, M., Sutton, R. and Rosen, S. 2015. Differing autonomic responses to dobutamine stress in the presence and absence of myocardial ischaemia. The Journal of Physiology. 593 (9), pp. 2171-2184. https://doi.org/10.1113/JP270063
The safety and clinical usefulness of dobutamine stress echocardiography among octogenarians
O'Driscoll, J., Marciniak, A., Ray, K., Schmid, K., Smith, R. and Sharma, R. 2014. The safety and clinical usefulness of dobutamine stress echocardiography among octogenarians. Heart. 2014 (100), pp. 1001-1007. https://doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2013-305229
The implementation of problem based learning styles to teach the Coach-Athlete relationship to undergraduate Sport and Exercise Science students
Rossato, C. and O'Driscoll, J. 2013. The implementation of problem based learning styles to teach the Coach-Athlete relationship to undergraduate Sport and Exercise Science students. International Journal of Sport Studies. 3, pp. 859-864.
Resting blood pressure reductions following isometric leg exercise training are associated with improved flow-mediated vasodilatation
Howland, L., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2014. Resting blood pressure reductions following isometric leg exercise training are associated with improved flow-mediated vasodilatation.
Improved gross efficiency during long duration submaximal cycling following a short-term high carbohydrate diet
Cole, M., Coleman, D., Hopker, J. and Wiles, J. 2014. Improved gross efficiency during long duration submaximal cycling following a short-term high carbohydrate diet. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 35 (3), pp. 265-269. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1348254
The influence of ageing and training status on exercise efficiency and cycling performance
Hopker, J., Coleman, D., Jobson, S., Von der Haar, T., Wiles, J. and Passfield, L. 2013. The influence of ageing and training status on exercise efficiency and cycling performance.
Reductions in resting blood pressure after isometric exercise training are not related to shear stress
Smith, J., Wiles, J., Swaine, I. and Coleman, D. 2013. Reductions in resting blood pressure after isometric exercise training are not related to shear stress.
Effect of acute isometric bilateral leg extension exercise on brachial and common femoral artery flow-mediated dilatation
Howland, L., Wiles, J., Coleman, D. and Swaine, I. 2013. Effect of acute isometric bilateral leg extension exercise on brachial and common femoral artery flow-mediated dilatation.
The effect of exercise-induced hypohydration upon treadmill running performance
Baker, D., Coleman, D. and Wiles, J. 2013. The effect of exercise-induced hypohydration upon treadmill running performance.
Carbohydrate ingestion improves gross cycling efficiency and subsequent time-trial performance
Cole, M., Hopker, J., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2013. Carbohydrate ingestion improves gross cycling efficiency and subsequent time-trial performance.
The effects of isometric wall squat exercise on heart rate and blood pressure in a normotensive population
Goldring, N., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2013. The effects of isometric wall squat exercise on heart rate and blood pressure in a normotensive population. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2013.809471
The influence of training status, age, and muscle fibre type on cycling efficiency and endurance performance
Hopker, J., Coleman, D., Gregson, H., Jobson, S., Von der Haar, T., Wiles, J. and Passfield, L. 2013. The influence of training status, age, and muscle fibre type on cycling efficiency and endurance performance. Journal of Applied Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00361.2013
The reliability of responses to repeated laboratory assessment: the evaluation of a preload-performance protocol in runners
Baker, D., Coleman, D. and Wiles, J. 2011. The reliability of responses to repeated laboratory assessment: the evaluation of a preload-performance protocol in runners.
Change in lactate accumulation after isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure
Swaine, I., Devereux, G., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2011. Change in lactate accumulation after isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure.
Rapid loss of isometric training-induced reductions in resting blood pressure
Wiles, J., Devereux, G., Coleman, D. and Swaine, I. 2011. Rapid loss of isometric training-induced reductions in resting blood pressure.
Change in the immediate post-exercise blood pressure response after isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure
Wiles, J., Swaine, I., Howden, R., McCartney, N. and Coleman, D. 2011. Change in the immediate post-exercise blood pressure response after isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure.
Change in shear rate in the common femoral upon cessation of leg isometric exercise at increasing intensities
Swaine, I., Smith, J. and Wiles, J. 2012. Change in shear rate in the common femoral upon cessation of leg isometric exercise at increasing intensities.
Cardio-pulmonary responses to whole-body simulated swimming using a novel swimming training machine
Swaine, I., Wiles, J., Coleman, D., Hunter, A. and Carlton, K. 2010. Cardio-pulmonary responses to whole-body simulated swimming using a novel swimming training machine.
Effects of the intensity of leg isometric training on the vasculature of trained and untrained limbs and resting blood pressure in middle-aged men
Baross, A., Wiles, J. and Swaine, I. 2012. Effects of the intensity of leg isometric training on the vasculature of trained and untrained limbs and resting blood pressure in middle-aged men. International Journal of Vascular Medicine. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/964697
Lactate accumulation following isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure
Devereux, G., Coleman, D., Wiles, J. and Swaine, I. 2012. Lactate accumulation following isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure. Journal of Sports Sciences. 30 (11), pp. 1141-1148. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.692482
Markers of isometric training intensity and their relationship with training-induced reductions in resting blood pressure
Devereux, G., Wiles, J. and Swaine, I. 2011. Markers of isometric training intensity and their relationship with training-induced reductions in resting blood pressure. Journal of Sports Sciences. 29 (7), pp. 715-724. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.552113
The relationship between indices of fatigue and femoral artery post exercise hyperaemia after double-leg isometric exercise at increasing intensities
Smith, J., Wiles, J., Swaine, I. and Coleman, D. 2012. The relationship between indices of fatigue and femoral artery post exercise hyperaemia after double-leg isometric exercise at increasing intensities.
The effects of four weeks home-based isometric exercise training on resting blood pressure
Goldring, N., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2012. The effects of four weeks home-based isometric exercise training on resting blood pressure.
The effects of isometric wall squat exercise on heart rate and blood pressure in a normotensive population
Goldring, N., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2010. The effects of isometric wall squat exercise on heart rate and blood pressure in a normotensive population.
The influence of nutritional interventions on the measurement of gross efficiency during cycling
Cole, M., Coleman, D. and Wiles, J. 2012. The influence of nutritional interventions on the measurement of gross efficiency during cycling.
The effect of short-term dietary manipulation on gross efficiency during cycling
Cole, M., Coleman, D. and Wiles, J. 2011. The effect of short-term dietary manipulation on gross efficiency during cycling.
The relationship between EMG and either heart rate or blood pressure during a single-leg incremental isometric exercise test
Swaine, I., Baross, T., Kay, T. and Wiles, J. 2009. The relationship between EMG and either heart rate or blood pressure during a single-leg incremental isometric exercise test.
Can 4 weeks of isometric exercise lower resting blood pressure in young, healthy, active men?
Swaine, I., Devereux, G. and Wiles, J. 2009. Can 4 weeks of isometric exercise lower resting blood pressure in young, healthy, active men?
Effect of isometric exercise training on resting blood pressure: A meta-analysis of controlled trials
Swaine, I., Owen, A. and Wiles, J. 2009. Effect of isometric exercise training on resting blood pressure: A meta-analysis of controlled trials.
Effects of physical activity, performed in accordance with the current recommendations, on CVD risk factors in 40-65 year old men
Perkins, G., Owen, A., Kearney, E., Wiles, J. and Swaine, I. 2007. Effects of physical activity, performed in accordance with the current recommendations, on CVD risk factors in 40-65 year old men.
Differing autonomic responses to dobutamine stress in the presence and absence of myocardial ischaemia
Sharma, R., O'Driscoll, J., Bromley, P., Sritharan, M. and Rosen, S. 2008. Differing autonomic responses to dobutamine stress in the presence and absence of myocardial ischaemia.
Dobutamine stress echocardiography accurately detects significant coronary artery disease in Indian Asians living in the United Kingdom
Itam, S., O'Driscoll, J., Milad, E. and Sharma, R. 2008. Dobutamine stress echocardiography accurately detects significant coronary artery disease in Indian Asians living in the United Kingdom.
The effects of a high-protein, paleolithic-type diet on body composition and exercise performance in amateur mixed martial artists
Slee, A., O'Driscoll, J., Burnet, S., Hughes, G. and Chen, M. 2009. The effects of a high-protein, paleolithic-type diet on body composition and exercise performance in amateur mixed martial artists.
Subjective global assessment is an independent predictor of cardiac ischaemia in patients with mild chronic kidney disease
Aldous, G., Sharma, R., O'Driscoll, J., Ashby, D., Tarn, F. and Choi, P. 2010. Subjective global assessment is an independent predictor of cardiac ischaemia in patients with mild chronic kidney disease.
A National Health Service hospital's cardiac rehabilitation programme: a qualitative analysis of provision
O'Driscoll, J., Shave, R. and Cushion, C. 2007. A National Health Service hospital's cardiac rehabilitation programme: a qualitative analysis of provision. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 16 (10), pp. 1908-1918. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.01815.x
Inequalities in the training and implementation of cardiac rehabilitation in the United Kingdom
O'Driscoll, J. and Sharma, R. 2009. Inequalities in the training and implementation of cardiac rehabilitation in the United Kingdom. in: Bennington, E. (ed.) Horizons in World Cardiovascular Research Hauppauge, New York Nova Science Publishers.
Effect of caffeinated coffee on running speed, respiratory factors, blood lactate and perceived exertion during 1500-m treadmill running
Wiles, J., Bird, S., Hopkins, J. and Riley, M. 1992. Effect of caffeinated coffee on running speed, respiratory factors, blood lactate and perceived exertion during 1500-m treadmill running. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 26 (2), pp. 116-120. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.26.2.116
Effect of pre-exercise protein ingestion upon VO2, R and perceived exertion during treadmill running
Wiles, J., Woodward, R. and Bird, S. 1991. Effect of pre-exercise protein ingestion upon VO2, R and perceived exertion during treadmill running. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 25 (1), pp. 26-30. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.25.1.26
Effectiveness of two glycerol ingestion strategies on 40-km cycling time trial performance
Brickell, L., Balmer, J., Theakston, S., Wiles, J. and Bird, S. 2001. Effectiveness of two glycerol ingestion strategies on 40-km cycling time trial performance. Journal of Sports Sciences. 20 (1), pp. 46-47. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404102317126164
We can work it out
Morrissey, M. and Wiles, J. 2001. We can work it out. Nursing Times. 97 (47), pp. 34-36.
Effects of isometric exercise training intensity upon reductions in resting systolic blood pressure
Wiles, J., Coleman, D. and Swaine, I. 2008. Effects of isometric exercise training intensity upon reductions in resting systolic blood pressure.
A novel method for the performance of isometric exercise in the home
Wiles, J., Coleman, D., Dunford, M. and Swaine, I. 2004. A novel method for the performance of isometric exercise in the home.
The precision with which isometric exercise training can be performed according to a given heart rate
Swaine, I., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2008. The precision with which isometric exercise training can be performed according to a given heart rate.
Effects of three types of isometric leg exercise at the same relative exercise intensities on blood pressure
Swaine, I., Wiles, J., Dunford, M. and Coleman, D. 2004. Effects of three types of isometric leg exercise at the same relative exercise intensities on blood pressure.
The freely chosen contribution of the leg kick to the total power during simulated front crawl swimming on a onland ergometer
Swaine, I., Dunford, M., Wiles, J., Coleman, D., Hunter, A. and Carlton, K. 2006. The freely chosen contribution of the leg kick to the total power during simulated front crawl swimming on a onland ergometer.
The relationship between selected cardiovascular variables and exercise intensity during continuous and discontinuous incremental exercise tests
Allum, S., Wiles, J., Coleman, D. and Swaine, I. 2006. The relationship between selected cardiovascular variables and exercise intensity during continuous and discontinuous incremental exercise tests.
Familiarisation and reliability of sprint test indices during laboratory and field assessment
Hopker, J., Coleman, D., Wiles, J. and Galbraith, A. 2009. Familiarisation and reliability of sprint test indices during laboratory and field assessment. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 8 (4), pp. 528-532.
Occurrence of injury during officer safety training at Kent Police
Andrew, J., Henry, T., Coleman, D. and Wiles, J. 2009. Occurrence of injury during officer safety training at Kent Police. The Police Journal. 82 (3), pp. 265-274. https://doi.org/10.1350/pojo.2009.82.3.455
The effects of performing isometric training at two exercise intensities in healthy young males
Wiles, J., Coleman, D. and Swaine, I. 2010. The effects of performing isometric training at two exercise intensities in healthy young males. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 108 (3), pp. 419-428. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1025-6
The effect of training volume and intensity on competitive cyclists’ efficiency
Hopker, J., Coleman, D., Passfield, L. and Wiles, J. 2010. The effect of training volume and intensity on competitive cyclists’ efficiency. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 35 (1), pp. 17-22. https://doi.org/10.1139/H09-124
Reductions in resting blood pressure after 4 weeks of isometric exercise training
Devereux, G., Wiles, J. and Swaine, I. 2010. Reductions in resting blood pressure after 4 weeks of isometric exercise training. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 109 (4), pp. 601-606. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1394-x
Effect of isometric exercise on resting blood pressure: a meta analysis
Owen, A., Wiles, J. and Swaine, I. 2010. Effect of isometric exercise on resting blood pressure: a meta analysis. Journal of Human Hypertension. 24 (12), pp. 796-800. https://doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2010.13
Reproducibility of limb power outputs and cardiopulmonary responses to exercise using a novel swimming training machine
Swaine, I., Hunter, A., Carlton, K., Wiles, J. and Coleman, D. 2010. Reproducibility of limb power outputs and cardiopulmonary responses to exercise using a novel swimming training machine. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 31 (12), pp. 854-859. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1265175
The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on 1500-m racing time
Bird, S., Wiles, J. and Robbins, J. 1995. The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on 1500-m racing time. Journal of Sports Sciences. 13 (5), pp. 399-403. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419508732255
Validity and reliability of the Ergomopro Powermeter
Kirkland, A., Coleman, D., Wiles, J. and Hopker, J. 2008. Validity and reliability of the Ergomopro Powermeter. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 29 (11), pp. 913-916. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1038621
The relationships between exercise intensity, heart rate, and blood pressure during an incremental isometric exercise test
Wiles, J., Allum, S., Coleman, D. and Swaine, I. 2007. The relationships between exercise intensity, heart rate, and blood pressure during an incremental isometric exercise test. Journal of Sports Sciences. 26 (2), pp. 155-162. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410701370655
A novel method for the performance of isometric exercise in the home
Wiles, J., Coleman, D., Dunford, M. and Swaine, I. 2005. A novel method for the performance of isometric exercise in the home. Journal of Sports Sciences. 23 (8), pp. 795-803. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021658
The effects of caffeine ingestion on performance time, speed and power during a laboratory-based 1 km cycling time-trial
Wiles, J., Coleman, D., Tegerdine, M. and Swaine, I. 2006. The effects of caffeine ingestion on performance time, speed and power during a laboratory-based 1 km cycling time-trial. Journal of Sports Sciences. 24 (11), pp. 1165-1171. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500457687
Validity and reliability of a new isometric hand dynamometer
Wiles, J., Boyson, H., Balmer, J. and Bird, S. 2001. Validity and reliability of a new isometric hand dynamometer. Sports Engineering. 4 (3), pp. 147-152. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1460-2687.2001.00080.x
Relationships between pulse wave velocity and heart rate variability in healthy men with a range of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels
Perkins, G., Owen, A., Swaine, I. and Wiles, J. 2006. Relationships between pulse wave velocity and heart rate variability in healthy men with a range of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 98 (5), pp. 516-523. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-006-0303-9
Differences in efficiency between trained and recreational cyclists
Hopker, J., Coleman, D. and Wiles, J. 2007. Differences in efficiency between trained and recreational cyclists. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 32 (6), pp. 1036-1042. https://doi.org/10.1139/H07-070
Reliability of sprint test indices in well-trained cyclists
Coleman, D., Wiles, J., Nunn, M. and Smith, M. 2005. Reliability of sprint test indices in well-trained cyclists. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 26 (5), pp. 383-387. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-821226
Power output measurement during treadmill cycling
Coleman, D., Wiles, J., Davison, R., Smith, M. and Swaine, I. 2007. Power output measurement during treadmill cycling. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 28 (6), pp. 525-530. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-955888