The role of apoptosis in cryopreserved animal oocytes and embryos
Vining, L. M., Zak, L. J., Harvey, S. C. and Harvey, K. 2021. The role of apoptosis in cryopreserved animal oocytes and embryos. Theriogenology.
|Authors||Vining, L. M., Zak, L. J., Harvey, S. C. and Harvey, K.|
Cryopreservation of both gametes and embryos, for storage and for the preservation of their developmental capacity is a critical aspect of assisted reproductive technology. The survival of reproductive material following cryopreservation protocols is not only vital to clinical applications in the human in vitro fertilisation clinic, but is also important in the in vitro production (IVP) of livestock embryos. The ability to routinely cryopreserve oocytes and embryos of livestock species has the potential to improve animal welfare, reduce environmental impact, and reduce associated costs for breeding companies through the reduction of live animal transportation. Unfortunately, frozen oocytes and embryos are regularly documented to contain a higher proportion of apoptotic cells compared to their non-frozen counterparts, with freezing procedures thought to trigger apoptotic pathways of cell death. Comparisons between frozen and non-frozen samples also show changes in the gene expression of apoptotic factors such as Bcl-2 and Bax in response to cryopreservation. Apoptotic inhibition has the potential to improve cryosurvival, and how to achieve this is subject to debate. Here, we review how exposure to low temperatures during cryopreservation may be responsible for the abnormal activation of apoptotic pathways in mammalian oocytes and embryos, and discuss the ways in which they can be influenced to improve cryopreservation protocols, particularly in agriculturally important species.
|Keywords||Cryopreservation; Bovine; Porcine; Cell death; Apoptosis|
|Publication process dates|
|Accepted||25 Jul 2021|
|Deposited||13 Sep 2021|
|Accepted author manuscript|
File Access Level
|Output status||In press|
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