Project 7708 understanding heritage crime in Kent and Medway – a data analytical approach

Project report


Bryant, R., Kent, A. and Hills, J. 2020. Project 7708 understanding heritage crime in Kent and Medway – a data analytical approach.
AuthorsBryant, R., Kent, A. and Hills, J.
TypeProject report
Abstract

Our research was concerned with the geographical areas of Kent and Medway and involved the spatial and temporal analysis of ‘heritage-specific offences’, ‘targeted heritage crime’ and ‘crime within, at or close to heritage sites’.
The crime data consisted of offence type and location details for the 1,122,180 crimes recorded by Kent Police during the period under study.
The geographical data we utilised included locations of Conservation Areas, Listed Buildings, Scheduled Monuments, Registered Parks and Gardens, Registered Battlefields, World Heritage Sites, Protected Wreck Sites and ‘Heritage at Risk’ sites in Kent and Medway.
Our best estimates suggest that currently approximately one in five Listed Buildings and one in four Places of Worship in Kent and Medway experience some form of crime each year. About one in ten Scheduled Monuments suffer crime, or it occurs nearby. Just over one half of Registered Parks or Gardens have one or more crimes a year within them. For Conservation Areas the proportion is (not unexpectedly) much larger, at closer to four in five.
We utilised local Moran’s I to identify spatial clusters at a regional level using LSOA-level crime data. This revealed several LSOAs on the fringes of areas of high levels of crime that could be particularly vulnerable to the spread of crime and therefore heritage-specific locations within these areas could be managed to halt the ‘spread’ of crime towards the periphery of the town.
In Kent and Medway Places of Worship (mostly Christian churches) are experiencing increasing numbers of crimes, and this has been particularly the case since around summer 2016. The rate of increase appears higher than that of all other crimes in the same period, both in general and at other heritage locations.
There is clear statistical evidence that metal thefts from churches have also been increasing markedly since around summer 2016. The rate of increase appears higher than that of most other crimes. There is statistically significant correlation between metal thefts from churches in Kent and Medway with both the price of lead and mixed brass.
Finally, we discovered that machine learning as a method of heritage crime prevention shows promise.

KeywordsHeritage crime; Kent; Medway
Year2020
Output statusUnpublished
File
File Access Level
Open
Publication process dates
Deposited14 Dec 2020
Additional information

Funded by Historic England.

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Soviet military mapping of the UK and contemporary Ordnance Survey mapping: a comparative analysis
Davis, M. and Kent, A. 2015. Soviet military mapping of the UK and contemporary Ordnance Survey mapping: a comparative analysis.
The value of historical maps: art, accuracy and society
Kent, A. 1998. The value of historical maps: art, accuracy and society. Thesis Oxford Brookes University Cartography
News media mapping: the good, the bad, and the ugly
Vujakovic, P. and Kent, A. 2011. News media mapping: the good, the bad, and the ugly. Design Group Workshop, ‘Mapping 2011 – The power of the image’ The British Cartographic Society, Annual Symposium.
A sense of Plaice? Visitor maps, heritage and place branding in the coastal towns of the Transmanche region
Vujakovic, P. and Kent, A. 2014. A sense of Plaice? Visitor maps, heritage and place branding in the coastal towns of the Transmanche region.
Cultures of cartography: towards a new research agenda
Kent, A., Vujakovic, P. and McLean, K. 2014. Cultures of cartography: towards a new research agenda. ’Capture, Create, and Communicate’, British Cartographic Society, Annual Symposium. Winchester 24 - 26 Jun 2014
A sense of plaice: The cartographic branding of English and French coastal towns in the Transmanche Region
Kent, A. and Vujakovic, P. 2014. A sense of plaice: The cartographic branding of English and French coastal towns in the Transmanche Region.
A foreign affair – map design and international news
Vujakovic, P. and Kent, A. 2011. A foreign affair – map design and international news. Maplines. Summer, pp. 4-5.
Maps for growing minds: designing atlases for children
Kent, A. and Vujakovic, P. 2012. Maps for growing minds: designing atlases for children. Maplines. Winter.
A sense of plaice?
Vujakovic, P. and Kent, A. 2014. A sense of plaice? Maplines. Spring, pp. 14-16.
Turning the tide? Visitor maps and the place branding of coastal towns in Kent and East Sussex
Vujakovic, P., Hills, J. and Kent, A. 2014. Turning the tide? Visitor maps and the place branding of coastal towns in Kent and East Sussex. Bulletin of the Society of Cartographers. 47 (1), pp. 37-42.
From a dry statement of facts to a thing of beauty: understanding aesthetics in the mapping and counter-mapping of place
Kent, A. 2013. From a dry statement of facts to a thing of beauty: understanding aesthetics in the mapping and counter-mapping of place. Cartographic Perspectives. 73, pp. 39-60.
Policing digital crime
Bryant, R., Bryant, R., Bennett, D., Day, E., Kennedy, I. and Stephens, P. Bryant, R. and Bryant, R. (ed.) 2014. Policing digital crime. Farnham Ashgate.
Understanding aesthetics: the cartographers' response
Kent, A. 2013. Understanding aesthetics: the cartographers' response. Bulletin of the Society of Cartographers. 46 (1, 2), pp. 31-43.
Cartographic design and aesthetics “FAQ”
Kent, A., Field, K., Jenny, B. and Hopfstock, A. 2012. Cartographic design and aesthetics “FAQ”. Cartographic Perspectives. 73.
Hot geospatial intelligence from a Cold War: the Soviet military mapping of towns and cities
Kent, A. and Davies, J. 2013. Hot geospatial intelligence from a Cold War: the Soviet military mapping of towns and cities. Cartography and Geographic Information Science. 40 (3), pp. 248-253. https://doi.org/10.1080/15230406.2013.799734
Police training and education: past, present and future
Bryant, R., Cockcroft, T., Tong, S. and Wood, D. 2013. Police training and education: past, present and future. in: Brown, J. (ed.) The Future of Policing London Routledge.
Maps from the past?
Kent, A. 2012. Maps from the past? Sheetlines: The Journal of the Charles Close Society for the Study of Ordnance Survey Maps. 94, pp. 17-22.
Maps, pixels, and power: improving design and communication in remote sensing
Kent, A. 1999. Maps, pixels, and power: improving design and communication in remote sensing. Masters Thesis University of Cambridge (Queens' College) Geography
Submission to the Home Affairs Committee inquiry into leadership and standards in the police. (Written evidence.)
Bryant, R., Tong, S. and Wood, D. 2012. Submission to the Home Affairs Committee inquiry into leadership and standards in the police. (Written evidence.). London Home Office.
ASC 547 higher education and policing. Report submitted to the Higher Education Academy Social Sciences Cluster
Bryant, R., Bryant, S., Tong, S. and Wood, D. 2012. ASC 547 higher education and policing. Report submitted to the Higher Education Academy Social Sciences Cluster. Higher Education Academy.
New directions in cartography
Kent, A. 2011. New directions in cartography.
Conventions, cartographic
Kent, A. 2015. Conventions, cartographic. in: Monmonier, M. (ed.) Cartography in the Twentieth Century Chicago Chicago University Press.
Ordnance Survey and cartographic style: keeping the good view (part 2)
Kent, A. 2010. Ordnance Survey and cartographic style: keeping the good view (part 2). Sheetlines: The Journal of the Charles Close Society for the Study of Ordnance Survey Maps. 88, pp. 11-16.
Ordnance Survey and cartographic style: keeping the good view (part 1)
Kent, A. 2010. Ordnance Survey and cartographic style: keeping the good view (part 1). Sheetlines: The Journal of the Charles Close Society for the Study of Ordnance Survey Maps. 87, pp. 19-28.
Reproduction, design and aesthetics
Kent, A. 2015. Reproduction, design and aesthetics. in: Monmonier, M. (ed.) Cartography in the Twentieth Century Chicago Chicago University Press.
Cartographic language: towards a new paradigm for understanding stylistic diversity in topographic maps
Kent, A. and Vujakovic, P. 2011. Cartographic language: towards a new paradigm for understanding stylistic diversity in topographic maps. The Cartographic Journal. 48 (1), pp. 21-40. https://doi.org/10.1179/1743277411Y.0000000004
Cognition, behaviour, representation
Griffin, A., Fabrikant, S. and Kent, A. 2012. Cognition, behaviour, representation. The Cartographic Journal. 49 (4).
A hazy mirror? Testing the reflection of society in state topographic maps
Kent, A. 2011. A hazy mirror? Testing the reflection of society in state topographic maps. in: Ruas, A. (ed.) Advances in Cartography and GIScience: Volume 1: Selection from ICC 2011, Paris Berlin Springer. pp. 109-132
Toward a theory of intelligence
Bryant, R. 2008. Toward a theory of intelligence.
Interim report: An evaluation of adult prison RJ (Restorative Justice) mediation
Bryant, R., O'Mahoney, J., Waters, B. and Tong, S. 2009. Interim report: An evaluation of adult prison RJ (Restorative Justice) mediation. Canterbury, Kent, UK Canterbury Christ Church University.
An evaluation of the Broadstairs dispersal area
Bryant, R. and Cockcroft, T. 2009. An evaluation of the Broadstairs dispersal area. Thanet District Council.
Restorative justice in prisons
Bryant, R. 2009. Restorative justice in prisons.
Teaching and training in post-compulsory education
Armitage, A., Bryant, R., Dunnill, R., Hammersley, A., Hayes, D., Hudson, A. and Lawes, S. 1998. Teaching and training in post-compulsory education. Buckingham; Philadelphia Open University Press.
An analysis of the cartographic language of European state topographic maps: aesthetics, style, and identity
Kent, A. 2007. An analysis of the cartographic language of European state topographic maps: aesthetics, style, and identity. PhD Thesis University of Kent/Canterbury Christ Church University Geographical and Life Sciences
Engaging new cartographers
Vujakovic, P. and Kent, A. 2010. Engaging new cartographers.
Understanding aesthetics for good cartographic design
Kent, A. 2010. Understanding aesthetics for good cartographic design.
Landscape or blandscape? Exploring cartographic style in European topographic maps of the 20th century
Kent, A. 2010. Landscape or blandscape? Exploring cartographic style in European topographic maps of the 20th century.
Helping Haiti: some reflections on contributing to a global disaster relief effort
Kent, A. 2010. Helping Haiti: some reflections on contributing to a global disaster relief effort. Bulletin of the Society of Cartographers. 44 (1-2), pp. 39-45.
The work of the European cybercrime training and education group
Bryant, R. 2010. The work of the European cybercrime training and education group.
An analysis of conversion to UCAS 'Accepted Applicant' status of AHKM partnership school students
Apps, J., Bryant, R. and Rogers, R. 2010. An analysis of conversion to UCAS 'Accepted Applicant' status of AHKM partnership school students. Aimhigher Kent and Medway.
Cartographic blandscapes and the new noise: finding the good view in a topographical mashup
Kent, A. 2008. Cartographic blandscapes and the new noise: finding the good view in a topographical mashup. The Bulletin of the Society of Cartographers. 42 (1-2), pp. 29-37.
Topographic maps: methodological approaches for analyzing cartographic style
Kent, A. 2009. Topographic maps: methodological approaches for analyzing cartographic style. Journal of Map and Geography Libraries. 5 (2), pp. 131-156.
Resources for teaching and learning
Bryant, R. 2007. Resources for teaching and learning. in: Armitage, A., Bryant, R., Dunnill, R., Flanagan, K., Hayes, D., Hudson, A., Kent, J. and Lawes, S. (ed.) Teaching and Training in Post-Compulsory Education Maidenhead Open University Press. pp. 108-142
Validation and quality assurance of foundation degrees - a case study of a foundation degree in policing
Bryant, R. 2005. Validation and quality assurance of foundation degrees - a case study of a foundation degree in policing. Journal of Foundation Degree Forward. 5, pp. 48-53.
Understanding criminal investigation
Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvath, M. Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvarth, M. (ed.) 2009. Understanding criminal investigation. Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell.
Future challenges in criminal investigation
Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvath, M. 2009. Future challenges in criminal investigation. in: Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvarth, M. (ed.) Understanding Criminal Investigation Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 217-222
Criminal investigation in context
Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvath, M. 2009. Criminal investigation in context. in: Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvarth, M. (ed.) Understanding Criminal Investigation Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 171-196
Forms of reasoning and the analysis of intelligence
Bryant, R. 2009. Forms of reasoning and the analysis of intelligence. in: Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvarth, M. (ed.) Understanding Criminal Investigation Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 35-68
Theories of criminal investigation
Bryant, R. 2009. Theories of criminal investigation. in: Tong, S., Bryant, R. and Horvarth, M. (ed.) Understanding Criminal Investigation Oxford, UK Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 13-34
Plastic card crime
Bryant, R. and Stephens, P. 2008. Plastic card crime. in: Bryant, R. (ed.) Investigating Digital Crime Chichester Wiley. pp. 133-151
Digitalisation and crime
Bryant, R. and Stephens, P. 2008. Digitalisation and crime. in: Bryant, R. (ed.) Investigating Digital Crime Chichester Wiley. pp. 211-230
Stylistic diversity in European state 1 : 50 000 topographic maps
Kent, A. and Vujakovic, P. 2009. Stylistic diversity in European state 1 : 50 000 topographic maps. The Cartographic Journal. 46 (3), pp. 179-213. https://doi.org/10.1179/000870409X12488753453453
Intelligence and its application to contemporary policing
Phillips, D., Caless, B. and Bryant, R. 2007. Intelligence and its application to contemporary policing. Policing. 1 (4), pp. 438-446. https://doi.org/10.1093/police/pam060
Aesthetics: a lost cause in cartographic theory?
Kent, A. 2005. Aesthetics: a lost cause in cartographic theory? The Cartographic Journal. 42 (2), pp. 182-188. https://doi.org/10.1179/000870405X61487
Foundations of the theory of maps on surfaces with boundary
Bryant, R. and Singerman, D. 1985. Foundations of the theory of maps on surfaces with boundary. The Quarterly Journal of Mathematics. 36 (1), pp. 17-41. https://doi.org/10.1093/qmath/36.1.17