On ‘sisterhood’: What Iraqi Kurdish women migrants have to say about women and the commonalities they share

Journal article


Wright, T. 2014. On ‘sisterhood’: What Iraqi Kurdish women migrants have to say about women and the commonalities they share. Journal of International Women's Studies. 15 (2), pp. 182-196.
AuthorsWright, T.
Abstract

Based on a research study this paper is concerned with the migration experiences of Iraqi Kurdish Muslim women. Commonalities among women was one of the main themes emerging from the research data, with much of that data related to what some of the Kurdish women conceptualise as a ‘sisterhood’ of women, suggesting that for at least half of the Kurdish women, experiences of inequality, domestic abuse, and patriarchal oppression provide a significant point of commonality among women.
More complete approaches to women’s experiences of relationships of power do not negate the relationships of power, inequality, and experiences of domestic abuse existing between men and women; such approaches also do not prioritise over these relationships the relationships of oppression that exist between culturally and/or socioeconomically different women. Taking account of commonalities among women through sameness experiences of gender inequalities and patriarchal abuse, and how those commonalities are constructed, offers insight into the potential evolution of transnational feminism.

KeywordsIraqi Kurds; women’s migration; cross-cultural ethnography; transnational feminism; patriarchal abuse; sisterhood
Year2014
JournalJournal of International Women's Studies
Journal citation15 (2), pp. 182-196
PublisherBridgewater State University
ISSN1539-8706
Official URLhttp://vc.bridgew.edu/jiws/vol15/iss2/12
Publication dates
PrintJul 2014
Publication process dates
Deposited31 Mar 2016
Accepted2014
Output statusPublished
References

Adlim, A. September, 2005. Multiple oppression and women’s access to healthcare, International Free Women’s Foundation/Netherlands presentation, available from: <http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/vaw/ngocontribute/International%20F...
men_s%20Foundation.pdf> (accessed 01 November 2011).

Ahmed, S. 1998. Differences that matter: Feminist theory and postmodernism, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Ahmed, S. 2000, Strange encounters: Embodied others in postcoloniality, Routledge, London & New York.

Ahmed, S. (2007-2008). ‘Multiculturalism and the promise of happiness’, in New Formations: A Journal of Culture/Theroy/Politics, No. 63.

Ahmetbeyzade, C. 1999. Kurdish Nationalism in Turkey and the Role of Peasant Kurdish Women, in T. Mayer, Gender ironies of nationalism: Sexing the nation, London and New York, Routledge, pp. 187-210.

Al-Ali, N & Pratt, N. 2011. ‘Between Nationalism and Women’s Rights: The Kurdish Women’s Movement in Iraq’, in Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, Volume 4 pp. 337-353.

Amnesty International 2011. available from: <www.amnesty.org.uk> (accessed 01 November 2011).

Ang-Lygate, M. 1997. ‘Charting the spaces of (un)location: On theorising diaspora’ in H. Safia Mirza (ed.), Black British Feminism: A Reader, Routledge, London & New York.

Bhabha, H. K. 1994. ‘Of mimicry and men: The ambivalence of colonial discourse’, in The location of culture, Routledge, London & New York, pp. 85-92.

Brown, W. (2008). Regulating aversion: Tolerance in the age of identity and empire, Princeton University Press, Princeton & Oxford.

Bulloch, J. & Morris, H. 1993. No friends but the mountains: The tragic history of the Kurds, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Crawley, H. 2001. Refugees and gender: Law and process, Jordon Publishing, Bristol.

Galletti, M. 2001. ‘Western images of the woman’s role in Kurdish society’, in Mojab, S.Women of a non-state nation: The Kurds, Mazda Publications, Irvine California pp. 209-220.

Gedalof, I. 2003. ‘Taking (a) place: Female embodiment and the re-grounding of community’ in S. Ahmed, C. Castaneda & A. Fortier, Uprootings/regroundings: Questions of home and migration, Berg, Oxford & New York, pp. 91-107.

Harding, S. & Norberg, K. 2005. ‘New feminist approaches to social science methodologies: An introduction’, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 2017-35.

Harraway, D. 1991. Simians, cyborgs, and women: The reinvention of nature, Free Association Books, London.

Hassanpour, A. 2001. ‘The (re)production of patriarchy in Kurdish language’, in Mojab, S. Women of a non-state nation: The Kurds, Mazda Publications, Irvine California pp. 227- 259.

Landry, D., & Maclean, G. 1996. The Spivak reader, Routledge, New York & London.

MacKinnon, C. 1991, ‘From practice to theory, or what is a white woman anyway?’ Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, vol. 4, no.1, pp. 13-22.

McDonald, S. 2001. ‘Kurdish women and self-determination: A feminist approach to international law’, in Mojab, S. Women of a non-state nation: The Kurds, Mazda Publications, Irvine California pp. 135-152.

McDowall, D. 2000. A modern history of the Kurds, I. B. Tauris & Co., London & New York.

Minh-ha, T. 1988, ‘Not you/like you: Postcolonial women and the interlocking questions of identity and difference’, Inscriptions, no. 3-4, pp. 71–80.

Minh-ha, T. 1989. Women, native, other: Writing postcoloniality and feminism, Indiana
University Press, Indiana.

Mohanty, Chandra Talpade (2003). Feminism without Borders: Decolonizing Theory, Practicing
Solidarity, Duke University Press.

Mojab, S. 2001a. ‘The solitude of the stateless: Kurdish women at the margins of feminist knowledge’, in Mojab, S. Women of a non-state nation: The Kurds, Mazda Publications, Irvine California pp. 1-16.

Mojab, S. 2001b. ‘Nationalism and gender relations in Kurdistan’, in H. Bannerji, S. Mojab & J. Whitehead, Of property and propriety: The role of gender and class in imperialism and nationalism, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp. 118-131.

Mojab, S. & Abdo, N. (eds.) 2004. Violence in the name of honour: Theoretical and political challenges. Bilgi University Press, Istanbul.

Mojab, S. & Gorman, R. 2007. ‘War, diaspora and Kurdish women’s organising’, Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 58-85, available from <hhtp://www.jstor.org.uk/stable/10.2979/MEW.2007.3.1.58> (accessed 25October
2011).

Oakley, A. 2005. The Ann Oakley Reader: Gender, Women and Social Science. Bristol: Policy Press.

Obando, A. E. 2003. ‘Migrant women’, Women Human Rights Net, available from: <http://www.iiav.nl/ezines/web/WHRnet/2003/June/whrnet/issue-migrantw... (accessed 01 November 2011).

O’Leary, A. 2002. ‘The Kurds of Iraq: Recent history, future prospects’, Middle East Review of
International Affairs Journal, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1-15.

Palmer, C. 2002, Refugee women and domestic violence—Country studies: Iraqi Kurdistan, Women’s Resource Project, Asylum Aid, available from: <http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/pdfid/478e3c9cd.pdf> (accessed 01 November 2011).

Pearce, L. 1995. ‘Finding a place from which to write: The methodology of feminist textual practice’, in B. Skeggs (ed.), Feminist cultural theory: Process and production, Manchester University Press, Manchester.

Pirouet, L. 2001, Whatever happened to asylum in Britain?, Berghan Books, New York & Oxford.

Sadiq Al-Ali, N. 2007, Iraqi Women: Untold stories from 1948 to the present, Zen Books, London & New York.

Said, E. 1978, Orientalism: Western conceptions of the Orient, Penguin, London.

Spivak, G. 1985, ‘Can the subaltern speak? Speculations on widow-sacrifice’, Wedge, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 120-130.

Spivak, G. 1986, ‘Imperialism and Sexual Difference’, Oxford Literary Review, vol. 7. no. 1-2, pp. 225-240.

Stanley, L. & Wise, S. 1993, Breaking out again: Feminist ontology and epistemology,Routledge, London & New York.

Suleri, S. 1992, ‘Woman skin deep: Feminism and the postcolonial condition’, Critical Inquiry,196

Journal of International Women’s Studies Vol. 15, No. 2 July 2014 vol. 18, no. 4 (Summer), pp. 765-769. UK Border Agency (UKBA), Iraq country of origin information, available from: <http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw... (accessed 01 November 2011).

Vives, L. 2012. “Fragmented Migrant (Her) Stories: Multi-Sited Ethnography and Feminist Migration Research.” In Feminism and Migration Cross-Cultural Engagements, edited by G. T. Bonifacio, 61-80. London: Springer.

Yeoh, S. A., P. Teo, and S. Huang. 2002. Gender Politics in the Asia-Pacific Region. London and New York: Routledge.

File
Permalink -

https://repository.canterbury.ac.uk/item/87qv5/on-sisterhood-what-iraqi-kurdish-women-migrants-have-to-say-about-women-and-the-commonalities-they-share

Download files

  • 56
    total views
  • 14
    total downloads
  • 2
    views this month
  • 1
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Older lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex peoples’ experiences and perceptions of receiving home care services in the community: A systematic review
Smith, R. and Wright, T. 2021. Older lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex peoples’ experiences and perceptions of receiving home care services in the community: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2021.103907
The impact of COVID-19 on BAME populations: a systematic review of experiences and perspectives
Wright, T., Keval, H., Keys, C., Nanayakkara, G., Onyejekwe, C., Sah, R. and Smith, R. 2021. The impact of COVID-19 on BAME populations: a systematic review of experiences and perspectives. PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews.
Health inequalities and ethnic vulnerabilities during COVID-19 in the UK: A reflection on the PHE reports
Keys, C., Nanayakkara, G., Onyejekwe, C., Sah, R. and Wright, T. 2021. Health inequalities and ethnic vulnerabilities during COVID-19 in the UK: A reflection on the PHE reports. Feminist Legal Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10691-020-09446-y
The CASCADE project: exploring a ‘guest house’ concept
Smith, R., Wright, T., Martin, A. and Hatzidimitriadou, E. 2020. The CASCADE project: exploring a ‘guest house’ concept. Journal of Dementia Care. 28 (5), pp. 20-21.
HeEL Talk Collaboration and Interdisciplinary, Public Health England, and the Disproportionate Impact of Covid-19 on Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) communities
Wright, T., Nanayakkara, G., Keys, C., Onyejekwe, C. and Sah, R. 2020. HeEL Talk Collaboration and Interdisciplinary, Public Health England, and the Disproportionate Impact of Covid-19 on Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) communities.
A response to PHE's reports on disparities in risks and outcomes of COVID-19 for BAME communities
Keys, C., Nanayakkara, G., Onyejekwe, C., Sah, R. and Wright, T. 2020. A response to PHE's reports on disparities in risks and outcomes of COVID-19 for BAME communities.
Older LGBTQI+ people: a protocol for a systematic review of their experiences of receiving home care services in the community
Smith, R. and Wright, T. 2020. Older LGBTQI+ people: a protocol for a systematic review of their experiences of receiving home care services in the community. PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews.
The whole systems approach to integrating urgent and emergency care
Manley, K., Martin, A., Jackson, C. and Wright, T. 2015. The whole systems approach to integrating urgent and emergency care. Health Service Journal- for healthcare leaders.
Reviewing challenges and gaps in European and global dementia policy
Wright, T. and O'Connor, S. 2018. Reviewing challenges and gaps in European and global dementia policy. Journal of Public Mental Health. 17 (4), pp. 157-167. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPMH-02-2018-0012
A realist synthesis of effective continuing professional development (CPD): a case study of healthcare practitioners' CPD
Manley, K., Martin, A., Jackson, C. and Wright, T. 2018. A realist synthesis of effective continuing professional development (CPD): a case study of healthcare practitioners' CPD. Nurse Education Today. 69, pp. 134-141.
Survey of international experts to build consensus about optimum care standards, educational programmes, care environments & technological developments for people living with dementia
Wright, T. and Jackson, C. 2018. Survey of international experts to build consensus about optimum care standards, educational programmes, care environments & technological developments for people living with dementia.
Using participatory, practice development, Delphi and realist research approaches to understand how frontline teams can use the workplace to make sustainable improvements in the quality of their practice
Manley, K., Jackson, C., Martin, A. and Wright, T. 2018. Using participatory, practice development, Delphi and realist research approaches to understand how frontline teams can use the workplace to make sustainable improvements in the quality of their practice.
I would have been/ could be amazing: a social justice oriented visual art rejoinder to whole earth?
Bruty, L., Haas, M., Peisley, T., Royal, L., Wright, K. and Wright, T. 2017. I would have been/ could be amazing: a social justice oriented visual art rejoinder to whole earth? in: Sustainability in Higher Education: Challenges and Opportunities Canterbury Christ Church University.
Safety culture, quality improvement, realist evaluation (SCQIRE): evaluating the impact of the patient safety collaborative initiative
Manley, K., Jackson, C., McKenzie, C., Martin, A. and Wright, T. 2017. Safety culture, quality improvement, realist evaluation (SCQIRE): evaluating the impact of the patient safety collaborative initiative.
The need for black and women of colour feminist epistemologies in critical suicide studies
Hayford, A. and Wright, T. 2018. The need for black and women of colour feminist epistemologies in critical suicide studies .
Primary care strategic workforce planning programme
Jackson, C. and Wright, T. 2017. Primary care strategic workforce planning programme.
Towards radical praxis through a new formation in practice development
Wright, T. 2017. Towards radical praxis through a new formation in practice development. International Practice Development Journal. 7 (2). https://doi.org/10.19043/ipdj.72.006
The ‘imagined to the reimagined’ revival of learning in higher education
Wright, T. 2017. The ‘imagined to the reimagined’ revival of learning in higher education. Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice. 5 (3). https://doi.org/10.14297/jpaap.v5i3.234
Exploring the benefits of intersectional feminist social justice approaches in art psychotherapy
Wright, T. and Wright, K. 2017. Exploring the benefits of intersectional feminist social justice approaches in art psychotherapy. The Arts in Psychotherapy. 54, pp. 7-14.
Safe caseloads for adult community nursing services – an updated review of the evidence
Jackson, C., Wright, T. and Martin, A. 2016. Safe caseloads for adult community nursing services – an updated review of the evidence.
Using systems thinking to identify workforce enablers for a whole systems approach to urgent and emergency care delivery: a multiple case study
Manley, K., Martin, A., Jackson, C. and Wright, T. 2016. Using systems thinking to identify workforce enablers for a whole systems approach to urgent and emergency care delivery: a multiple case study. BMC Health Services Research. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1616-y
Managing gendered expectations upon resettlement: the experiences of Iraqi Kurdish Muslim women in the UK
Wright, T. 2013. Managing gendered expectations upon resettlement: the experiences of Iraqi Kurdish Muslim women in the UK. Gender, Place and Culture. 21 (6), pp. 733-749. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2013.802665
Reconceptualising dementia friendly communities
Wright, T. 2014. Reconceptualising dementia friendly communities. Diversity and Equality in Health and Care. 11 (3), pp. 282-283.
The contrary nature of ‘differentiation’ in higher education
Wright, T. 2014. The contrary nature of ‘differentiation’ in higher education. Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice. 2 (2), pp. 52-55. https://doi.org/10.14297/jpaap.v2i2.107
Whatever happened to the F word in higher education?
Wright, T. 2014. Whatever happened to the F word in higher education? Journal of Gender Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/09589236.2014.931801
Developing a caseload model to reflect the complexity of district and community nursing
Wright, T., Jackson, C., Manley, K., Martin, A. and Leary, A. 2015. Developing a caseload model to reflect the complexity of district and community nursing. Primary Health Care. 25 (7), pp. 32-33. https://doi.org/10.7748/phc.25.7.32.e1057
The Cassandra project: recognising the multidimensional complexity of community nursing for workforce development
Jackson, C., Leary, A., Wright, T., Leadbetter, T., Manley, K. and Martin, A. 2015. The Cassandra project: recognising the multidimensional complexity of community nursing for workforce development. Canterbury Christ Church University England Centre for Practice Development.
Continuing professional development (CPD) for quality care: context, mechanisms, outcome and impact: Education Outcomes Framework: round 2 funding: final report January 2015
Jackson, C., Manley, K., Martin, A. and Wright, T. 2015. Continuing professional development (CPD) for quality care: context, mechanisms, outcome and impact: Education Outcomes Framework: round 2 funding: final report January 2015. Canterbury Christ Chruch University England Centre for Practice Development.
Art for women’s sake: understanding feminist art therapy as didactic practice re-orientation
Wright, T. and Wright, T. 2013. Art for women’s sake: understanding feminist art therapy as didactic practice re-orientation.
Art for women’s sake: understanding feminist art therapy as didactic practice re-orientation
Wright, K. and Wright, T. 2013. Art for women’s sake: understanding feminist art therapy as didactic practice re-orientation.
The Cassandra Project- building a sustainable workload activity model for future community and district nursing workforce capacity planning
Jackson, C., Leary, A., Manley, K., Wright, T. and Martin, A. 2015. The Cassandra Project- building a sustainable workload activity model for future community and district nursing workforce capacity planning.
Art for women’s sake: understanding feminist art therapy as didactic practice re-orientation
Wright, T. and Wright, K. 2013. Art for women’s sake: understanding feminist art therapy as didactic practice re-orientation. International Practice Development Journal. 3 (Suppl.).
Transforming urgent & emergency care together: developing standards for integrated facilitation in and about the workplace
Manley, K., Martin, A., Jackson, C., Wright, T. and Health Education Kent Surrey and Sussex 2015. Transforming urgent & emergency care together: developing standards for integrated facilitation in and about the workplace. Canterbury, UK Canterbury Christ Church University.
Bespoke CPD for practice nurses
Jackson, C., Crouch, S., Price, S. and Wright, T. 2015. Bespoke CPD for practice nurses. Practice Nursing. 26 (2), pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.12968/pnur.2015.26.2.94
Making the complexity of community nursing visible: the Cassandra project
Jackson, C., Manley, K., Martin, A., Wright, T. and Leadbetter, T. 2015. Making the complexity of community nursing visible: the Cassandra project. British Journal of Community Nursing. 20 (3), pp. 126-133. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjcn.2015.20.3.126