The Olympic Games and raising sports participation: a systematic review of evidence and an interrogation of policy for a demonstration effect

Journal article


Weed, M., Coren, E., Fiore, J., Wellard, I., Chatziefstathiou, D. and Suzanne, D. 2015. The Olympic Games and raising sports participation: a systematic review of evidence and an interrogation of policy for a demonstration effect. European Sport Management Quarterly. 15 (2). https://doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2014.998695
AuthorsWeed, M., Coren, E., Fiore, J., Wellard, I., Chatziefstathiou, D. and Suzanne, D.
Abstract

Research questions:
Can a demonstration effect, whereby people are inspired by elite sport, sports people and events to actively participate themselves, be harnessed from an Olympic Games to influence sport participation? Did London 2012 sport participation legacy policy draw on evidence about a demonstration effect, and was a legacy delivered?

Research methods:
A worldwide systematic review of English language evidence returned 1,778 sources iteratively reduced by the author panel, on advice from an international review panel, to 21 included sources that were quality appraised and synthesised narratively. The evidence was used to examine the influence of a demonstration effect on sport participation engagement and to interrogate sport participation legacy policy for London 2012.

Results and findings:
There is no evidence for an inherent demonstration effect, but a potential demonstration effect, properly leveraged, may deliver increases in sport participation frequency and re-engage lapsed participants. Despite setting out to use London 2012 to raise sport participation, successive UK governments’ policy failures to harness the potential influence of a demonstration effect on demand resulted in failure to deliver increased participation.

Implications:
If the primary justification for hosting an Olympic Games is the potential impact on sport participation, the Games are a bad investment. However, the Games can have specific impacts on sport participation frequency and re-engagement, and if these are desirable for host societies, are properly leveraged by hosts, and are one among a number of reasons for hosting the Games, then the Games may be a justifiable investment in sport participation terms.

Year2015
JournalEuropean Sport Management Quarterly
Journal citation15 (2)
PublisherRoutledge
ISSN1618-4742
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2014.998695
Publication dates
Print28 Jan 2015
Publication process dates
Deposited06 Mar 2015
Accepted23 Sep 2014
Accepted author manuscript
Output statusPublished
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Hellenism and Olympism: Pierre de Coubertin and the Greek challenge to the early Olympic movement
Chatziefstathiou, D. and Henry, I. 2010. Hellenism and Olympism: Pierre de Coubertin and the Greek challenge to the early Olympic movement. in: Girginov, V. (ed.) The Olympics: a critical reader London, UK Routledge. pp. 123-134
Hellenism, Coubertin and the modern Olympic movement
Chatziefstathiou, D. 2010. Hellenism, Coubertin and the modern Olympic movement. in: Chatziefstathiou, D. and Georgoulas, S. (ed.) Sport in society and the society of sport: theory, methodology and research Greece Nhmerths. pp. 221-234
Sport in society and the society of sport: theory, methodology and research
Chatziefstathiou, D. and Georgoulas, S. 2010. Sport in society and the society of sport: theory, methodology and research. Greece Nhmerths.
Parenting training for intellectually disabled parents: a Cochrane systematic review
Coren, E., Thomae, M. and Hutchfield, J. 2011. Parenting training for intellectually disabled parents: a Cochrane systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice. 21 (4), pp. 432-441. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731511399586
British Asians and football: Culture, identity, exclusion
Chatziefstathiou, D. 2008. British Asians and football: Culture, identity, exclusion. European Sport Management Quarterly. 8 (2), pp. 207-208.
Pierre de Coubertin's ideology of beauty from the perspective of the history of ideas
Seagrave, J. and Chatziefstathiou, D. 2008. Pierre de Coubertin's ideology of beauty from the perspective of the history of ideas. in: Barney, R., Heine, M., Warmsley, K. and MacDonald, G. (ed.) Pathways: Critiques and Discourse in Olympic Research Ontario, Canada International Centre for Olympic Studies. pp. 31-43
Olympism, governmentality and technologies of power
Chatziefstathiou, D. and Henry, I. 2008. Olympism, governmentality and technologies of power. in: Barney, R., Heine, M., Warmsley, K. and MacDonald, G. (ed.) Pathways: Critiques and Discourse in Olympic Research Ontario, Canada International Centre for Olympic Studies. pp. 320-337
The changing nature of Olympism in the modern Olympic era
Chatziefstathiou, D. 2009. The changing nature of Olympism in the modern Olympic era. Interdisciplinary Institute of European Studies, Analyses and Planning.
Defining 'corruption' in the modern Olympic movement
Chatziefstathiou, D. 2007. Defining 'corruption' in the modern Olympic movement. in: Georgoulas, S. (ed.) Criminology in Greece Today Athens ΚΨΜ Publications.
The aesthetic Olympic visions of Baron Pierre de Coubertin
Segrave, J. and Chatziefstathiou, D. 2009. The aesthetic Olympic visions of Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Esporte e Sociedade. 4 (12).
Qualitative content analysis of Coubertin's six selected writings
Chatziefstathiou, D. 2001. Qualitative content analysis of Coubertin's six selected writings.
Hellenism, Coubertin and Modernity in the discourse of modern Olympic Movement
Chatziefstathiou, D. 2004. Hellenism, Coubertin and Modernity in the discourse of modern Olympic Movement.
Defining 'corruption' in the modern Olympic movement
Chatziefstathiou, D. 2006. Defining 'corruption' in the modern Olympic movement.
Cultural imperialism and the diffusion of Olympic sport in Africa: a comparison of pre- and post- Second World War contexts
Chatziefstathiou, D., Henry, I., Al-Tauqi, M. and Theodoraki, E. 2006. Cultural imperialism and the diffusion of Olympic sport in Africa: a comparison of pre- and post- Second World War contexts. in: Crowther, N., Barney, R. and Heine, M. (ed.) Cultural Realism in Action: Critiques in the Global Olympic Trust The University of Western Ontario International Centre for Olympic Studies. pp. 278-292
Cultural imperialism and the diffusion of Olympic sport in Africa: a comparison of pre- and post-Second World War contexts
Chatziefstathiou, D., Henry, I., Al-Tauqi, M. and Theodoraki, E. 2008. Cultural imperialism and the diffusion of Olympic sport in Africa: a comparison of pre- and post-Second World War contexts. in: Ren, H. and DaCosta, L. (ed.) Olympic Reader Studies Barcelona Centre d'Estudis Olimpics.
Technologies of power, governmentality and Olympic discourses: a Foucauldian analysis for understanding the discursive constructions of the Olympic ideology
Chatziefstathiou, D. and Henry, I. 2009. Technologies of power, governmentality and Olympic discourses: a Foucauldian analysis for understanding the discursive constructions of the Olympic ideology. Esporte e Sociedade. 4 (12).
Parenting programmes for improving maternal psychosocial health
Barlow, J. and Coren, E. 2000. Parenting programmes for improving maternal psychosocial health. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online). 4.
Risperidone for autism spectrum disorder
Jesner, O., Aref-Adib, M. and Coren, E. 2007. Risperidone for autism spectrum disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online). 1 (CD0050). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005040.pub2
Individual and group-based parenting programmes for improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and their children
Coren, E. and Barlow, J. 2011. Individual and group-based parenting programmes for improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and their children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online). 3 (CD0029). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002964.pub2
Systemic reviews for social care: evidence for practice?
Coren, E. 2006. Systemic reviews for social care: evidence for practice?
Analytic maps of research systematic review products: an illustration using examples from two institutions
Coren, E., Bates, S., Gough, D., Newman, M. and Goldman, R. 2007. Analytic maps of research systematic review products: an illustration using examples from two institutions.
Joining up for evidence based practice: a role for social work education?
Coren, E. 2007. Joining up for evidence based practice: a role for social work education?
Diverse voices in systemic reviews: SCIE's approach
Edwards, A. and Coren, E. 2007. Diverse voices in systemic reviews: SCIE's approach.
A specialist systematic review workshop
Coren, E. 2008. A specialist systematic review workshop.
Joining up for evidence informed practice
Coren, E. 2008. Joining up for evidence informed practice.
Using the Olympic Games to leverage sport, physical activity participation and health: a worldwide systematic review
Weed, M., Coren, E. and Fiore, J. 2008. Using the Olympic Games to leverage sport, physical activity participation and health: a worldwide systematic review.
Evidence, involvement and accountability: Exploring service user participation in systematic review
Coren, E. and Carr, S. 2008. Evidence, involvement and accountability: Exploring service user participation in systematic review.
Assessing research mindedness in practice placements of MA social work students
Coren, E., Hutchfield, J., Wiseman, J., Kelly, A. and Cecil, B. 2009. Assessing research mindedness in practice placements of MA social work students.
Development of a study to collect views on service delivery from children & young people affected by child sexual abuse: management of ethical issues
Coren, E. and Hutchfield, J. 2009. Development of a study to collect views on service delivery from children & young people affected by child sexual abuse: management of ethical issues.
An evaluation of a national network of projects to support children and families who have experienced sexual abuse
Coren, E. and Hutchfield, J. 2009. An evaluation of a national network of projects to support children and families who have experienced sexual abuse.
Measuring appropriate outcomes in evaluating interventions for families recovering from child sexual abuse
Coren, E. 2009. Measuring appropriate outcomes in evaluating interventions for families recovering from child sexual abuse.
The conduct of systematic research reviews for SCIE knowledge reviews
Coren, E. and Fisher, M. 2006. The conduct of systematic research reviews for SCIE knowledge reviews. London, UK Social Care Institute for Excellence.
Systematic Map 1: The extent and impact of parental mental health problems on the family, the interventions available and the acceptability, accessibility and effectiveness of interventions
Bates, S. and Coren, E. 2006. Systematic Map 1: The extent and impact of parental mental health problems on the family, the interventions available and the acceptability, accessibility and effectiveness of interventions. London, UK Social Care Institute for Excellence.
Collection of examples of service user and carer participation in systemic reviews
Carr, S. and Coren, E. 2007. Collection of examples of service user and carer participation in systemic reviews. London, UK Social Care Institute for Excellence.
A systematic review of the evidence base for developing a physical activity, sport and health legacy from the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: report to funders
Weed, M., Coren, E., Fiore, J., Mansfield, L., Wellard, I., Chatziefstathiou, D. and Dowse, S. 2008. A systematic review of the evidence base for developing a physical activity, sport and health legacy from the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: report to funders. Canterbury, UK Physical Activity Network West Midlands on behalf of Regional Physical Activity Teams in the West Midlands, the East Midlands, the East of England, London and the South East.
The contribution of social work and social care to the reduction of health inequalities: four case studies
Coren, E., Iredale, W., Bywaters, P., Rutter, D. and Robinson, J. 2010. The contribution of social work and social care to the reduction of health inequalities: four case studies. London, UK Social Care Institute for Excellence.
Meta-analysis of parenting programmes in improving maternal psychosocial health
Barlow, J., Coren, E. and Stewart-Brown, S. 2002. Meta-analysis of parenting programmes in improving maternal psychosocial health. British Journal of General Practice (BJGP). 52 (476), pp. 223-233.
Systematic maps to support the evidence base in social care
Bates, S., Clapton, J. and Coren, E. 2007. Systematic maps to support the evidence base in social care. Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice. 3 (4), pp. 539-551. https://doi.org/10.1332/174426407782516484
Joining up for evidence informed practice - a role for social work education? A Discussion Paper
Coren, E. 2008. Joining up for evidence informed practice - a role for social work education? A Discussion Paper. The Kent Journal of Practice Research. 2 (1), pp. 1-6.
The child's voice in service evaluation: ethical and methodological issues
Hutchfield, J. and Coren, E. 2011. The child's voice in service evaluation: ethical and methodological issues. Child Abuse Review. https://doi.org/10.1002/car.1142
Action for children: child outcomes-focused evaluation - final data collection report
Coren, E., Hutchfield, J., Iredale, W. and Thomae, M. 2010. Action for children: child outcomes-focused evaluation - final data collection report. Canterbury, UK Canterbury Christ Church University.
Focus groups and young peoples' views of the Olympic and Paralympic Games
Mansfield, L., Chatziefstathiou, D., Curtis, H., Dray, K., Fiore, J. and Weed, M. 2009. Focus groups and young peoples' views of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
Archival analysis and Olympic research
Chatziefstathiou, D., Mansfield, L. and Curtis, H. 2009. Archival analysis and Olympic research.
Olympic research and qualitative media analysis
Curtis, H., Mansfield, L. and Chatziefstathiou, D. 2009. Olympic research and qualitative media analysis.
An investigation of young athletes attitudes on fair play
Kabitsis, C., Chatziefstathiou, D., Harahousou, Y. and Albanidis, E. 2000. An investigation of young athletes attitudes on fair play.
Coubertin, colonialism and control of the spread of Olympic sport in Africa
Chatziefstathiou, D., Henry, I. and Theodoraki, E. 2004. Coubertin, colonialism and control of the spread of Olympic sport in Africa.
All sports for all people: the Socialist challenge, Coubertin and the ideology of 'popular' Olympism
Chatziefstathiou, D. 2006. All sports for all people: the Socialist challenge, Coubertin and the ideology of 'popular' Olympism. Kinesiologia Slovenica. 12 (2), pp. 13-22.
Olympic games (and Olympism)
Chatziefstathiou, D. and Malfas, M. 2003. Olympic games (and Olympism). in: Jenkins, J. and Pigram, J. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Leisure and Outdoor Recreation London Routledge.
International Olympic Committee
Chatziefstathiou, D. 2005. International Olympic Committee. in: Bartlett, R., Gratton, C. and Rolf, C. (ed.) Encyclopedia of International Sports Studies London Routledge.
A flame inside me is ignited when I dance: Physical activity and embodied reflexive practices in young ballet dancers
Wellard, I. 2005. A flame inside me is ignited when I dance: Physical activity and embodied reflexive practices in young ballet dancers.
Investigating talented girls in dance
Wellard, I. and Pickard, A. 2005. Investigating talented girls in dance.
Performing sporting masculinities: sexuality, body practices and gay identities
Wellard, I. 2005. Performing sporting masculinities: sexuality, body practices and gay identities.
Making spaces for sport and the arts
Dismore, H. and Wellard, I. 2006. Making spaces for sport and the arts.
Queer sport for all: to what extent does gay sport address inclusion and human rights?
Wellard, I. 2006. Queer sport for all: to what extent does gay sport address inclusion and human rights?
Masculinities on the move: negotiating male identities within the context of physical education and dance
Wellard, I. 2006. Masculinities on the move: negotiating male identities within the context of physical education and dance.
Transcending the heteronormative in sport: masculine sporting identities, sexuality and in/exclusive practices
Wellard, I. 2006. Transcending the heteronormative in sport: masculine sporting identities, sexuality and in/exclusive practices.
Inflexible bodies and inflexible minds: Gendered imbalances within the context of physical education and dance
Wellard, I. 2007. Inflexible bodies and inflexible minds: Gendered imbalances within the context of physical education and dance.
Communities of physical education practice in schools: Placing gendered limits upon lifelong sporting participation
Wellard, I. 2008. Communities of physical education practice in schools: Placing gendered limits upon lifelong sporting participation.
Body reflexive pleasures: exploring bodily experiences within the context of sport and physical activity
Wellard, I. 2009. Body reflexive pleasures: exploring bodily experiences within the context of sport and physical activity.
Canterbury City Council play strategy: report on a research and consultation project
Powell, S., Bailey, R. and Wellard, I. 2005. Canterbury City Council play strategy: report on a research and consultation project. Canterbury, UK Canterbury City Council.
Policies and play: the impact of national policies on children's opportunities for play
Powell, S. and Wellard, I. 2008. Policies and play: the impact of national policies on children's opportunities for play. London, UK Play England.
Parent training support for intellectually disabled parents
Coren, E., Hutchfield, J., Thomae, M. and Gustafsson, C. 2010. Parent training support for intellectually disabled parents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online). 6, p. CD007987. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007987.pub2
Sport, masculinities and the body: an exploration
Wellard, I. 2009. Sport, masculinities and the body: an exploration.
Keeping sport queer: maintaining the challenge to exclusive masculinity
Wellard, I. 2004. Keeping sport queer: maintaining the challenge to exclusive masculinity. Inter-Cultural Studies. 4 (1).
Sport, gender and embodied reflexive pleasures
Wellard, I. 2010. Sport, gender and embodied reflexive pleasures.
Girls' participation in physical activities and sports: benefits, patterns, influences and ways forward
Bailey, R., Wellard, I. and Dismore, H. 2004. Girls' participation in physical activities and sports: benefits, patterns, influences and ways forward. World Health Organisation.
Policies and play: the impact of national policies on children's opportunities for play
Powell, S. and Wellard, I. 2008. Policies and play: the impact of national policies on children's opportunities for play. London National Children’s Bureau.
Sport, body performance and the maintenance of 'exclusive masculinity'
Wellard, I. 2003. Sport, body performance and the maintenance of 'exclusive masculinity'. in: Fleming, S. and Jones, I. (ed.) Leisure Cultures: investigations in sport, media and technology Eastbourne Leisure Studies Association.
Active bodies for 'real' men: reflecting upon the social constructions of activity and passivity for gendered and sexually identified bodies
Wellard, I. 2005. Active bodies for 'real' men: reflecting upon the social constructions of activity and passivity for gendered and sexually identified bodies. in: Bramham, P. and Caudwell, J. (ed.) Sport, Active Leisure and Youth Cultures Eastbourne Leisure Studies Association.
Making spaces for sport and the arts
Dismore, H., Wellard, I. and Bailey, R. 2006. Making spaces for sport and the arts. in: Atchison, C., Richards, G. and Tallon, A. (ed.) Urban Transformations: Regeneration and Renewal in Leisure and Tourism Eastbourne Leisure Studies Association.
Transcending the heteronormative in sport: masculine sporting identities, sexuality and in/exclusive practices
Wellard, I. 2009. Transcending the heteronormative in sport: masculine sporting identities, sexuality and in/exclusive practices. in: Liotard, P. (ed.) Sport, homosexualites, homophobie Editions Quasimodo.
Sexuality and youth sport
Wellard, I. 2011. Sexuality and youth sport. in: Dagkas, S. and Armour, K. (ed.) Inclusion and Exclusion through Youth Sport London Routledge.
Girls and physical activities: a summary review
Bailey, R., Wellard, I. and Dismore, H. 2005. Girls and physical activities: a summary review. Education and Health. 23 (1), pp. 3-5.
Sport, masculinities and the body
Wellard, I. 2009. Sport, masculinities and the body. London Routledge.
Olympic sponsorship: evolution, challenges and impact on the Olympic Movement
Giannoulakis, C., Stotlar, D. and Chatziefstathiou, D. 2008. Olympic sponsorship: evolution, challenges and impact on the Olympic Movement. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship. 9 (4), pp. 256-270.
The history of marketing an idea: the example of Baron Pierre de Coubertin as a social marketeer
Chatziefstathiou, D. 2007. The history of marketing an idea: the example of Baron Pierre de Coubertin as a social marketeer. European Sport Management Quarterly. 7 (1), pp. 55-80. https://doi.org/10.1080/16184740701270337
Hellenism and Olympism: Pierre de Coubertin and the Greek challenge to the early Olympic Movement
Chatziefstathiou, D. and Henry, I. 2007. Hellenism and Olympism: Pierre de Coubertin and the Greek challenge to the early Olympic Movement. Sport in History. 27 (1), pp. 24-43. https://doi.org/10.1080/17460260701231034
Exploring the limits of queer and sport: gay men playing tennis
Wellard, I. 2006. Exploring the limits of queer and sport: gay men playing tennis. in: Caudwell, J. (ed.) Sport, Sexualities and Queer/Theory London Routledge. pp. 76-89
'A shock of electricity just sort of goes through my body': physical activity and embodied reflexive practices in young female ballet dancers
Wellard, I., Pickard, A. and Bailey, R. 2007. 'A shock of electricity just sort of goes through my body': physical activity and embodied reflexive practices in young female ballet dancers. Gender and Education. 19 (1), pp. 79-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540250601087793
Able bodies and sport participation: social constructions of physical ability for gendered and sexually identified bodies
Wellard, I. 2006. Able bodies and sport participation: social constructions of physical ability for gendered and sexually identified bodies. Sport, Education and Society. 11 (2), pp. 105-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573320600640645
Men, sport, body performance and the maintenance of 'exclusive masculinity'
Wellard, I. 2003. Men, sport, body performance and the maintenance of 'exclusive masculinity'. Leisure Studies. 21 (3-4), pp. 235-247. https://doi.org/10.1080/0261436022000030641
A systematic review of evidence for the potential of live sites to generate community and public health outcomes
Weed, M., Dowse, S., Chatziefstathiou, D., Lovell, J., Mansfield, L. and Wellard, I. 2010. A systematic review of evidence for the potential of live sites to generate community and public health outcomes. Dover National Health Service.
A UK perspective on developing an evidence base for social work practice: some gaps and some opportunities
Coren, E. 2008. A UK perspective on developing an evidence base for social work practice: some gaps and some opportunities. in: Adams, A., Erath, P. and Jovelin, E. (ed.) Social Work and Science - An Uneasy Relationship? Institut für Vergleichende Sozialarbeitswissenschaft und Interkulturelle/Internationale Sozialarbeit.
The effectiveness of individual and group-based parenting programmes in improving outcomes for teenage mothers and their children: a systematic review
Coren, E., Barlow, J. and Stewart-Brown, S. 2003. The effectiveness of individual and group-based parenting programmes in improving outcomes for teenage mothers and their children: a systematic review. Journal of Adolescence. 26 (1), pp. 79-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-1971(02)00119-7