The passion for educating the ‘‘New Man’’: debates about preschooling in Soviet Russia, 1917–1925

Journal article


Valkanova, D. 2009. The passion for educating the ‘‘New Man’’: debates about preschooling in Soviet Russia, 1917–1925. History of Education Quarterly. 49 (2), pp. 211-221. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5959.2009.00197.x
AuthorsValkanova, D.
Abstract

The Russian Revolution of February 1917 displaced the autocracy of the Romanov royal family and aimed to establish a liberal republican Russia. The Bolsheviks, who came to power a few months later in the revolution of October 1917, announced that their new policy in education "had no analogy in history." Their reforms sought to establish a Marxist-based education system, in an attempt to raise new citizens for a new, communist society. Above all, the Bolsheviks regarded education as a means to engineer the ideal human being, the "new man" and the "new woman." The Bolshevik reforms led to a large and rapid expansion of preschool and day nursery places. Preschool education became an integral part of the school system in 1918. The contribution of the Bolsheviks to the expansion of childcare and education is highlighted in many scholars' accounts of the history of Soviet preschool education. These include descriptions by visitors to Russia, such as American educators Patty Smith Hill and John Dewey, who witnessed these processes firsthand in the years that followed the October revolution. In this essay, the author discusses the massive commitment to the education and care of young children in Russia from just after the revolution of 1917-25. The author seeks to identify how liberal and progressive ideas were accommodated within the Marxist labor school philosophy, elements of which were incorporated in the preschools established by the Soviet regime. The author argues that there were two types of internal relations (to use Marx's notion) that dialectically shaped the intention of adapting the labor school to preschool theory and practice in 1917-25. The first relation of this explanatory model examines the establishment of the tradition of preschool education and care within the society, while the second observed relation reflects the way the preschool served the development and the necessities of the new state.

Year2009
JournalHistory of Education Quarterly
Journal citation49 (2), pp. 211-221
PublisherBlackwell Publishing
ISSN0018-2680
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5959.2009.00197.x
Publication dates
PrintMay 2009
Publication process dates
Deposited18 Sep 2013
Output statusPublished
Permalink -

https://repository.canterbury.ac.uk/item/86zwy/the-passion-for-educating-the-new-man-debates-about-preschooling-in-soviet-russia-1917-1925

  • 5
    total views
  • 0
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

The experimental stations and psychoanalytic laboratory in Soviet Russia, 1917-1929
Valkanova, D. 2020. The experimental stations and psychoanalytic laboratory in Soviet Russia, 1917-1929. in: Reimagining Teaching in Early 20th Century Experimental Schools New York Palgrave Macmillan United States. pp. 1 - 51
Reimagining teaching in early 20th century experimental schools
Hai, A.A., May, H., Nawrotzki, K., Prochner, L. and Valkanova, Y. 2020. Reimagining teaching in early 20th century experimental schools. New York Palgrave Macmillan United States.
Children's literature, Jewish seculariasation and the profesionalisation of kindergarten teachers in Russia and Eastern Europe, 1909-1925
Valkanova, Y. 2019. Children's literature, Jewish seculariasation and the profesionalisation of kindergarten teachers in Russia and Eastern Europe, 1909-1925. in: Veraksa, A.N. (ed.) Early childhood care and education, Conference Proceeding, Early childhood care and education VIII International conference (ECCE 2019) Moscow 29 May — 1 June 2019 Moscow Moscow State University M.B.Lomonosov Publishing House . pp. 118-119
Childhood through the ages
Valkanova, D. 2017. Childhood through the ages. in: Powell, S. and Smith, K. (ed.) An Introduction to Early Childhood Studies SAGE.
Froebelian conferences at Canterbury Christ Church University
Bruce, T. and Valkanova,Y. 2018. Froebelian conferences at Canterbury Christ Church University. in: Bruce, T., Elfer, P., Powell, S. and Werth, L. (ed.) The Routledge International Handbook of Froebel and Early Childhood Practice Re-articulating Research and Policy Routledge, Taylor and Francis.
The psychoanalytic kindergarten project in Soviet Russia 1921–1930
Valkanova, Y. 2018. The psychoanalytic kindergarten project in Soviet Russia 1921–1930. in: Bruce, T., Elfer, P., Powell, S. and Werth, L. (ed.) The Routledge International Handbook of Froebel and Early Childhood Practice Abingdon Routledge. pp. 50-52
The development of early childhood education in Europe and North America: historical and comparative perspectives
Valkanova, D. 2016. The development of early childhood education in Europe and North America: historical and comparative perspectives. History of Education. 46 (3), pp. 401-402. https://doi.org/10.1080/0046760X.2016.1181796
Constructions of nature and emerging ideas in children’s education and care, 1600s - 1900s
Valkanova, Y. 2015. Constructions of nature and emerging ideas in children’s education and care, 1600s - 1900s. in: David, T., Goouch, K. and Powell, S. (ed.) The Routledge International Handbook of Philosophies and Theories of Early Childhood Education and Care London Routledge. pp. 11-18
Childhood through the ages
Valkanova, D. 2013. Childhood through the ages. in: Maynard, T. and Powell, S. (ed.) An Introduction to Early Childhood Studies London SAGE Publications Ltd. pp. 22-33
Play and happy childhood: the value of play in the Eastern European migrant parents' narratives
Valkanova, D. 2008. Play and happy childhood: the value of play in the Eastern European migrant parents' narratives.
Is self-reflection an emotional experience? Rethinking the use of video in the primary science classroom
Valkanova, D. 2009. Is self-reflection an emotional experience? Rethinking the use of video in the primary science classroom.
Migrant children's learning experiences in the UK
Valkanova, D. 2009. Migrant children's learning experiences in the UK.
Being a rara avis: the educational experiences of Bulgarian children in schools in London
Valkanova, D. 2009. Being a rara avis: the educational experiences of Bulgarian children in schools in London. in: Eade, J. and Valkanova, D. (ed.) Accession and Migration: Changing Policy, Society and Culture in an Enlarged Europe Farnham Ashgate. pp. 133-142
Introduction
Eade, J. and Valkanova, D. 2009. Introduction. in: Eade, J. and Valkanova, D. (ed.) Accession and Migration: Changing Policy, Society and Culture in an Enlarged Europe Farnham, UK Ashgate. pp. 1-10
Digital storytelling in a science classroom: reflective self learning (RSL) in action
Valkanova, D. and Watts, Mike. 2008. Digital storytelling in a science classroom: reflective self learning (RSL) in action. in: Evans, R. and Jones, D. (ed.) Metacognitive Approaches to Developing Oracy: Developing Speaking and Listening with Young Children Abingdon Routledge. pp. 225-241
Breaking down the stereotypes: gender and achievement in schools
Skelton, C., Francis, B. and Valkanova, D. 2007. Breaking down the stereotypes: gender and achievement in schools. Manchester Equal Opportunities Commission. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3135.4083
The gifts and ‘contributions' Friedrich Froebel and Russian education (1850–1929)
Valkanova, Y. and Brehony, K. 2006. The gifts and ‘contributions' Friedrich Froebel and Russian education (1850–1929). History of Education. 35 (2), pp. 189 - 207. https://doi.org/10.1080/00467600500528065
A systematic review of the contribution of art education to cultural learning in learners aged 5–16
Mason, R., Gearon, L. and Valkanova, D. 2006. A systematic review of the contribution of art education to cultural learning in learners aged 5–16. London EPPI-Centre, Institute of Education.